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  • 14 Apr 2019
    Gender identity, whether consistent or inconsistent with other sex characteristics, may be understood to be “much less a matter of choice and much more a matter of biology” (Coolidge et al., 2000). The scientific evidence supports the paradigm that transsexualism is strongly associated with the neurodevelopment of the brain (Zhou et al., 1995; Kruijver et al., 2000). It is clear that the condition cannot necessarily be overcome by “consistent psychological socialisation as male or female from very early childhood” and it is not responsive to psychological or psychiatric treatments alone (Green, 1999). It is understood that during the fetal period the brain is potentially subject to the organising properties of sex hormones (Kruijver et al., 2000; 2001; 2002; 2003). In the case of transsexualism, these effects appear to be atypical, resulting in sex-reversal in the structure of the BSTc, and possibly other, as yet unidentified, loci (Kruijver, 2004). The etiological pathways leading to this inconsistent development almost certainly vary from individual to individual, so no single route is likely to be identified. Different genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, acting separately or in combination with each other, are likely to be involved in influencing the development of the psychological identification as male or female. Psychosocial factors and cultural mores are likely to impact on outcomes (Connolly, 2003).     Cristine Shye The scientific literature has already come to a consensus on the existence of cognitive sex differences, especially with regard to spatial ability. Both neural/hormonal and social factors contribute to those differences. See Diane Halpern's "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities". Stereotypes, including gender stereotypes, are mostly accurate. So saying that some view or conclusion is a gender stereotype is not a real criticism. See Lee Jussim's "Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy". Finally, let's assume the real reason why women have bigger corpus callosums is that they have smaller brains. Does the relation between sex and corpus callosum size cease to exist? No. Women on average will still have larger corpus callosums and all the (presumed) behavioural/cognitive characteristics associated with it.  If you look at the sexual dimorphism from an evolutionary perspective, this makes perfect sense. In early human societies, men went out to hunt while women stayed in the village (with very few exceptions). The traits that made men more successful were those that allowed them to be better hunters and warriors: so coordinated action, perception of environmental opportunities and dangers. For the women in the village, their success is more dependent on "politics" and relationships. Instead of organising hunts, the successful woman is one who is well liked by people and use strong communication skills and wits to solve problems (and not brawn since they will lose to the stronger males). Thus over time, as the traits that marks a successful man and woman differs, it makes sense that there should be sexual metamorphism in brain structures.  Which in turn is a probable and logical cause for some brain structure difference in male to female transexuals. CONCLUSION The male and the female brains show anatomical, functional and biochemical differences in all stages of life. These differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual
  • Gender identity, whether consistent or inconsistent with other sex characteristics, may be understood to be “much less a matter of choice and much more a matter of biology” (Coolidge et al., 2000). The scientific evidence supports the paradigm that transsexualism is strongly associated with the neurodevelopment of the brain (Zhou et al., 1995; Kruijver et al., 2000). It is clear that the condition cannot necessarily be overcome by “consistent psychological socialisation as male or female from very early childhood” and it is not responsive to psychological or psychiatric treatments alone (Green, 1999). It is understood that during the fetal period the brain is potentially subject to the organising properties of sex hormones (Kruijver et al., 2000; 2001; 2002; 2003). In the case of transsexualism, these effects appear to be atypical, resulting in sex-reversal in the structure of the BSTc, and possibly other, as yet unidentified, loci (Kruijver, 2004). The etiological pathways leading to this inconsistent development almost certainly vary from individual to individual, so no single route is likely to be identified. Different genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, acting separately or in combination with each other, are likely to be involved in influencing the development of the psychological identification as male or female. Psychosocial factors and cultural mores are likely to impact on outcomes (Connolly, 2003).     Cristine Shye The scientific literature has already come to a consensus on the existence of cognitive sex differences, especially with regard to spatial ability. Both neural/hormonal and social factors contribute to those differences. See Diane Halpern's "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities". Stereotypes, including gender stereotypes, are mostly accurate. So saying that some view or conclusion is a gender stereotype is not a real criticism. See Lee Jussim's "Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy". Finally, let's assume the real reason why women have bigger corpus callosums is that they have smaller brains. Does the relation between sex and corpus callosum size cease to exist? No. Women on average will still have larger corpus callosums and all the (presumed) behavioural/cognitive characteristics associated with it.  If you look at the sexual dimorphism from an evolutionary perspective, this makes perfect sense. In early human societies, men went out to hunt while women stayed in the village (with very few exceptions). The traits that made men more successful were those that allowed them to be better hunters and warriors: so coordinated action, perception of environmental opportunities and dangers. For the women in the village, their success is more dependent on "politics" and relationships. Instead of organising hunts, the successful woman is one who is well liked by people and use strong communication skills and wits to solve problems (and not brawn since they will lose to the stronger males). Thus over time, as the traits that marks a successful man and woman differs, it makes sense that there should be sexual metamorphism in brain structures.  Which in turn is a probable and logical cause for some brain structure difference in male to female transexuals. CONCLUSION The male and the female brains show anatomical, functional and biochemical differences in all stages of life. These differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual
    Apr 14, 2019 15
  • 25 Mar 2019
    Regardless of voting leave or remain, the very basis of our democracy is in question, remainers and leavers should honour the result and unite to shame this despicable parliament, what will they do to ignore the people the next time, put troops on the street and shoot us??????? for going against what these despicable shameless greedy politicians want? If a million leavers marched on London they would have been met with Armed troops, water cannons, rubber bullets and tear gas launchers.
  • Regardless of voting leave or remain, the very basis of our democracy is in question, remainers and leavers should honour the result and unite to shame this despicable parliament, what will they do to ignore the people the next time, put troops on the street and shoot us??????? for going against what these despicable shameless greedy politicians want? If a million leavers marched on London they would have been met with Armed troops, water cannons, rubber bullets and tear gas launchers.
    Mar 25, 2019 33
  • 22 Mar 2019
    The EU has handed Theresa May two weeks’ grace to devise an alternative Brexit plan if her deal falls next week after the prime minister failed to convince the bloc that she was capable of avoiding a no-deal Brexit. After a marathon late-night session of talks, the EU’s leaders ripped up May’s proposals and a new Brexit timeline was pushed on the prime minister to avoid the cliff-edge deadline of 29 March – next Friday. Under the deal agreed by May, Britain will now stay a member state until 12 April if the withdrawal agreement is rejected by MPs at the third time of asking. The government will be able to seek a longer extension during that period if it can both “indicate a way forward” and agree to hold European elections. In the unlikely event that May does win the support of the Commons when the Brexit deal goes to MPs again on Tuesday, the UK will stay a member state until 22 May to allow necessary withdrawal legislation to be passed. “The 12 April is the new 29 March,” an EU official said.   When did the bill pass through Parliament revoking the Withdrawal Act which categorically states that we will leave the EU, irrespective of any deal, on 29th March? A bill passed into law. Does parliament now intend to break the law? To revoke article 50, firstly a green paper prepared and presented in the house of commons, after amendments and being passed  then a white paper debated amended before being presented to the house of lords, debated amended and ratified and passed into law.      As one EU official has said, "The UK Parliament is unable [or unwilling] to deliver the will of the people
  • The EU has handed Theresa May two weeks’ grace to devise an alternative Brexit plan if her deal falls next week after the prime minister failed to convince the bloc that she was capable of avoiding a no-deal Brexit. After a marathon late-night session of talks, the EU’s leaders ripped up May’s proposals and a new Brexit timeline was pushed on the prime minister to avoid the cliff-edge deadline of 29 March – next Friday. Under the deal agreed by May, Britain will now stay a member state until 12 April if the withdrawal agreement is rejected by MPs at the third time of asking. The government will be able to seek a longer extension during that period if it can both “indicate a way forward” and agree to hold European elections. In the unlikely event that May does win the support of the Commons when the Brexit deal goes to MPs again on Tuesday, the UK will stay a member state until 22 May to allow necessary withdrawal legislation to be passed. “The 12 April is the new 29 March,” an EU official said.   When did the bill pass through Parliament revoking the Withdrawal Act which categorically states that we will leave the EU, irrespective of any deal, on 29th March? A bill passed into law. Does parliament now intend to break the law? To revoke article 50, firstly a green paper prepared and presented in the house of commons, after amendments and being passed  then a white paper debated amended before being presented to the house of lords, debated amended and ratified and passed into law.      As one EU official has said, "The UK Parliament is unable [or unwilling] to deliver the will of the people
    Mar 22, 2019 45
  • 17 Mar 2019
    Members of Parliament are our servants, elected to do our bidding, they are not our masters, that is why Cromwell fought a corrupt King and instituted a people's will parliament.   A referendum was held and both parties swore in their manifesto's at a subsequent election to abide by the will of the people relating to that referendum.   Shame on these self centred, corrupt buffoons, who are openly defying the will of the people. Do people not realise every time you buy simple things like a jar of coffee, rice, Chinese electronics, stuff from America, Japanese cars, the import tariff levied goes directly to the EU. This country should not have even looked for a deal, we import more from the EU, than the EU buys from us, so we should have just done tit for tat, put up import duties on French and German Cars, French wines and cheeses, used the earnings from these tariffs to subsidise Japanese cars manufactured in the UK.  More Poll tax style riots expected  
  • Members of Parliament are our servants, elected to do our bidding, they are not our masters, that is why Cromwell fought a corrupt King and instituted a people's will parliament.   A referendum was held and both parties swore in their manifesto's at a subsequent election to abide by the will of the people relating to that referendum.   Shame on these self centred, corrupt buffoons, who are openly defying the will of the people. Do people not realise every time you buy simple things like a jar of coffee, rice, Chinese electronics, stuff from America, Japanese cars, the import tariff levied goes directly to the EU. This country should not have even looked for a deal, we import more from the EU, than the EU buys from us, so we should have just done tit for tat, put up import duties on French and German Cars, French wines and cheeses, used the earnings from these tariffs to subsidise Japanese cars manufactured in the UK.  More Poll tax style riots expected  
    Mar 17, 2019 52
  • 20 Feb 2019
    Hi I'm Alana a pre op mtf who on April 8th I have my grs at charing Cross a decision that wasn't taken lightly. You see in life we all make decisions whether it be what we are doing one day or another or what's for tea or go for a drink. But for most trans cds and tvs there decisions are a whole lot more complicated. I came out as trans many moons ago and my family thought and even I thought it was a phase so I put it to the back of my head but still told them I like to dress I even lost my wife and 2 beautiful daughters from the decision I made. But as I was dressing more I became more moody until I couldn't cope anymore. I went and seen my gp and told them what was happening that I couldn't cope with just dressing and that I wanted to be alana full time. They referred me to charing Cross and they where amazing telling me how long the wait is and all the complications with hrt. I went back home and that is when I had to make decisions I told family who where supportive except my father I had to sell my business and also divorce from my wife of 5yrs it was heartbreaking but people say I was selfish but how could I be living a lie. So many trans and crossdressers live a lie and can't get out of what's happening so make the decision of either being happy or live a lie. Me now I'm happy but nervous about the new road I'll be going down xxx
    87 Posted by Alana Anderson
  • Hi I'm Alana a pre op mtf who on April 8th I have my grs at charing Cross a decision that wasn't taken lightly. You see in life we all make decisions whether it be what we are doing one day or another or what's for tea or go for a drink. But for most trans cds and tvs there decisions are a whole lot more complicated. I came out as trans many moons ago and my family thought and even I thought it was a phase so I put it to the back of my head but still told them I like to dress I even lost my wife and 2 beautiful daughters from the decision I made. But as I was dressing more I became more moody until I couldn't cope anymore. I went and seen my gp and told them what was happening that I couldn't cope with just dressing and that I wanted to be alana full time. They referred me to charing Cross and they where amazing telling me how long the wait is and all the complications with hrt. I went back home and that is when I had to make decisions I told family who where supportive except my father I had to sell my business and also divorce from my wife of 5yrs it was heartbreaking but people say I was selfish but how could I be living a lie. So many trans and crossdressers live a lie and can't get out of what's happening so make the decision of either being happy or live a lie. Me now I'm happy but nervous about the new road I'll be going down xxx
    Feb 20, 2019 87
  • 18 Jan 2019
    https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10178/-/view/post_id/72165%3C/a%3E   People may have read http://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10112/divorcing-and-the-unreasonable-transexual where a sugestion that divorce law may be changed to view transexual people more favourably in cases of divorce, this is done by a judge setting a precedent,  Stare Decisis (Latin, Let the decision stand.] The policy of courts to abide by or adhere to principles established by decisions in earlier cases.) The principle of stare decisis was not always applied with uniform strictness. In medieval England, common-law courts looked to earlier cases for guidance, but they could reject those they considered bad law. Courts also placed less than complete reliance on prior decisions because there was a lack of reliable written reports of cases. Official reports of cases heard in various courts began to appear in the United States in the early 1800s, but semiofficial reports were not produced in England until 1865. When published reports became available, lawyers and judges finally had direct access to cases and could more accurately interpret prior decisions, upholding those previously ruled upon, applying the same ideals to similar cases.   Case law precedent. Nevertheless, the principle of stare decisis has always been tempered with a conviction that prior decisions must comport with notions of good reason or they can be overruled by the highest court in the jurisdiction, The concept of precedent, or Stare Decisis, means to follow or adhere to previously decided cases in judging the case at bar. It means that appellate case law should be considered as binding upon lower courts.   The option of Matter of first impression, to apply or make a ruling of precedent, case law. (Legal principles enunciated and embodied in judicial decisions that are derived from the application of particular areas of law to the facts of individual cases).reported decisions of appeals courts and other courts which make new interpretations of the law and, therefore, can be cited as precedents. These interpretations are distinguished from "statutory law" which is the statutes and codes (laws) enacted by legislative bodies, "regulatory law" which is regulations required by agencies based on statutes, and in some states, the Common Law, which is the generally accepted law carried down from England. The rulings in trials and hearings which are not appealed and not reported are not case law and, therefore, not precedent or new interpretations. Law students principally study case law to understand the application of law to facts and learn the courts' subsequent interpretations of statutes. First impression (known as primae impressionis in Latin) is a legal case in which there is no binding authority on the matter presented. Such a case can set forth a completely original issue of law for decision by the courts, which will then set a precedent for similar cases if a judge so rules.. Ratio decidendi (Latin plural rationes decidendi) is a Latin phrase meaning "the reason" or "the rationale for the decision". The ratio decidendi is "the point in a case that determines the judgment" or "the principle that the case establishes" In other words, ratio decidendi is a legal rule derived from, and consistent with, those parts of legal reasoning within a judgment on which the outcome of the case depends,this is done by way of:- Rules of Inference.Conclusions based on evidence given on what is already known and proven or can be reasonably implied from all known facts.         Precedents (case law) a Judges ruling where an existing law, is unclear, to make inclusions, Judges interpret the laws. very rarely is a bad or contentious precedent set, if there was it could be appealed in a higher court on appeal, with a panel of judges repealing the ruling or accepting it, as a final move it could be referred to the house of lords. A typical case law precedent was in the case of a post op trasexual rape, rape is none gender specific,   The defence claimed that as the vagina was a constructed vagina and did not meet the clinical description and reproductive function of a natal females vagina, then it could not be classed as rape, R versus John Matthews The ruling which confirmed that vaginal rape of a ranssexual woman may be prosecuted as rape October 1996 This important and under-reported ruling confirmed that non-consentual penile penetration of the surgically-constructed vagina of a transsexual woman can, in law, be rape if the other ingredients of the offence are satisfied. In this case, the defendant was acquitted, but an important precedent was set.  It allows the alleged assailant of a transsexual woman to be charged with the more serious offence of rape, rather than the lesser charge of sexual assault, which carries lighter penalties.    read the transcript. http://www.pfc.org.uk/caselaw/R%20versus%20John%20Matthews.pdf   Reading Crown Court RCC NO. T960397 Artillery House Tilehurst Road Reading, Berks Monday, 28th October, 1996 Before: MR JUSTICE HOOPER Regina -v- John Matthews Counsels names not supplied Ruling Monday, 28th October, 1996MR. JUSTICE HOOPER: I now give my reasons for the ruling which I made at the outset of the trial. Count One of the indictment charges the defendant with having raped “C” on the 25th of December 1995. Count Two charges him with indecent assault on a male person, the particulars of the offence being that on the same day he indecently assaulted “C”, a male person. The following admissions have been made: “The complainant was born a biological male on the 18th of November 1958. On the 24th of November 1994 the complainant underwent gender reassignment surgery, which surgery produced a well-constructed, cosmetically acceptable artificial vagina, to enable her to live in the female role. There are anatomical differences between the artificial and natural vagina, namely: 1.The artificial vagina is made from colon, not from vaginal tissue. 2.Being made from colon, the artificial vagina is lined by columnar epithelium, whereas a natural vagina is lined by squamous epithelium. 3.During sexual arousal the lining of the natural vagina undergoes a sweating-like reaction, known as transudation, the result of which is the production of lubricating fluid. An artificial vagina may produce mucus from the glands in the columnar epithelium, but his is a different process from transudation. 4.The natural vagina terminates at the cervix at its inner end, whereas the artificial vagina has no cervix. 5.At or just within the opening of a natural vagina are the two openings of the Bartholin’s Glands (which produce a small quantity of a highly lubricious fluid); the artificial vagina does not have these openings. 6.A natural vagina opens on the vestibule of the vulva, between the labia minora. “C” does not have a labia minora. 7.A natural vagina has the physiological capacity forenormous expansion, such a during childbirth. An artificial vagina does not have this capacity. A natural vagina has a normal female clitoris whichconsists of some erodible tissue and is covered with sensitive glands and a hood of tissue. The artificial vagina has a clitoris constructed of penile tissue.” As to the words in the second paragraph of those admissions, “in the female role”, counsel for the prosecution, Mr. Charles Byers, asked me to assume for the purposes of the ruling that the complainant had had the artificial vagina constructed to enable her to have sexual intercourse. I make that assumption in fact. That assumption was later supported by the evidence. The authorities establish that “C” is, for legal purposes, a male in those circumstances. In those circumstances no submission is made about Count Two. As to Count One, it is submitted by Mr. Peter Cooper, Queen’s Counsel for the defendant that, given the admitted facts, the defendant cannot as a matter of law be convicted of rape.    He submits that the non-consentual penile penetration of the artificial vagina of a biological male cannot, in law, be rape. Section 1 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956, as substituted by the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, provides as follows: 1“It is an offence for a man to commit a rape; to rape a woman or another man. 2.A man commits rape if (a), he has sexual intercourse with a person, whether vaginal or anal, who C at the time of the intercourse does not consent to it, and (b) at the time he knows the person does not consent to the intercourse or is reckless as to whether that person consents to it.” Mr. Cooper submits first that penile penetration of the “vagina” of a biological male does not constitute “sexual intercourse” within the meaning of Section 1. To resolve that issue it is necessary to examine the Sexual Offences Act as originally drafted and as amended by the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 1976. Section 1 of the 1956 Act provided: “It is a felony for a man to rape a woman. Rape required vaginal penetration of a woman. Anal penetration could not constitute rape. See the Queen v. Gaston (1981) 73 Criminal Appeal Reports 164 (Court of Appeal). Throughout the act there are references to sexual intercourse (for example, with a girl under 13 or with a defective.) Section 12(1) provided: “It is a felony for a person to commit buggery with another person or with an animal. Section 44, which remains unchanged, provides:  “Where on the trial of any offence under this act, it is necessary to prove sexual intercourse, whether natural or unnatural. It shall not be necessary to prove the completion of the intercourse by the emission of seed. That the intercourse shall be deemed complete upon proof of penetration only.”   The word “natural” in that section was being used to describe heterosexual intercourse. The word “unnatural” to describe heterosexual and homosexual anal intercourse and bestiality. See Gaston at 167. Bestiality requires vaginal or anal intercourse with an animal or by an animal. See: R.v. Bourne (1952) 36 Criminal Appeal Reports 125. The 1976 Act defined the offence of rape. Included within the definition were to be found the words: “A man commits rape if (a) he has unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman who at the time of the intercourse does not consent to it”. Section 7(2) of the 1970 Act provided: “References to sexual intercourse shall be construed in accordance with Section 44 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956, so far as it relates to natural intercourse. (Under which such intercourse is deemed complete on proof of penetration only)”. By virtue of paragraph 35 (4) Schedule 10 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, these words “shall be omitted” from Section 7(2). In my judgement there is no reason to limit the expression “sexual intercourse” in the way being submitted by Mr. Cooper. “Sexual intercourse”means penile penetration of the vagina or anus. The fact that the vagina might be that of a biological male does not prevent it from being “sexual intercourse”. He further submits that the words “vaginal intercourse” in Section 1 does not include penetration of a male’s artificial vagina. If a woman has a natural vagina which is anatomically irregular as a result of a birth defect, an operation or an accident, it would in my judgment be rape to penetrate it. (See S.v.S. (otherwise W) (No 2) [1962] All E.R. 55, at page 63). If a woman had an artificial vagina constructed because of a birth defect or an accident, could it be rape to penetrate it? I have been referred to no authority directly on point. In S.v.S, as Mr. Justice Ormerod said in Corbett v Corbett, [1970] 2 All E.R 33, at 49: “There are passages in the judgement which seemed togo as far as holding that a [woman], born without a vagina at all, could be capable of consummating a marriage by the construction of an entirely artificial one”. In Corbett, Mr. Justice Ormerod said that “he was prepared to hold that” a person with a completely artificial vagina would be incapable of consummating a marriage. In that case the respondent to a petition for a decree of nullity, was born a biological male who, like the complainant, had undergone gender reassignment surgery involving the construction of an artificial vagina. The decree was granted on the basis that the respondent was a male and, in any event, incapable of consummating the marriage because of the artificial vagina. In my judgment, whether or not a woman with an artificial vagina can consummate a marriage is of little help in resolving the issue whether penetration of it would constitute rape. In my judgement, it could. I turn then to the question whether penetration of a male’s artificial vagina can constitute rape in the circumstances reflected by the admissions. Section 1 uses the word “person”. The words “whether vaginal or anal” relate to the intercourse. Indeed, the section might more happily read: “A man commits rape if (a) he has sexual intercourse (whether vaginal or anal) with a person”. [Passage omitted.]Mr. Byers submits that the wording of the section is clear and that it includes penile penetration of a male, of a biological male’s artificial vagina. I accept that submission, notwithstanding that during the use of the offence in rape, in those circumstances it was apparently not-a matter which was mentioned during the debates other than this amendment. Furthermore, rape being the non-consensual penile penetration of either of the two intimate orifices, I see no reason why, as a matter of public policy, that the offence is not committed. In conclusion, therefore, in my judgement, penile penetration of a male’s biological artificial vagina can, in law, constitute rape. There is no dispute that, having resolved the matter in this way, I should direct the jury that, as a matter of law, the penile penetration of this complainant’s vagina is rape if the other ingredients of the offence are satisfied.   Remember this was before the advent of the GRA (Gender Recognition Act  2004)
    158 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10178/-/view/post_id/72165%3C/a%3E   People may have read http://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10112/divorcing-and-the-unreasonable-transexual where a sugestion that divorce law may be changed to view transexual people more favourably in cases of divorce, this is done by a judge setting a precedent,  Stare Decisis (Latin, Let the decision stand.] The policy of courts to abide by or adhere to principles established by decisions in earlier cases.) The principle of stare decisis was not always applied with uniform strictness. In medieval England, common-law courts looked to earlier cases for guidance, but they could reject those they considered bad law. Courts also placed less than complete reliance on prior decisions because there was a lack of reliable written reports of cases. Official reports of cases heard in various courts began to appear in the United States in the early 1800s, but semiofficial reports were not produced in England until 1865. When published reports became available, lawyers and judges finally had direct access to cases and could more accurately interpret prior decisions, upholding those previously ruled upon, applying the same ideals to similar cases.   Case law precedent. Nevertheless, the principle of stare decisis has always been tempered with a conviction that prior decisions must comport with notions of good reason or they can be overruled by the highest court in the jurisdiction, The concept of precedent, or Stare Decisis, means to follow or adhere to previously decided cases in judging the case at bar. It means that appellate case law should be considered as binding upon lower courts.   The option of Matter of first impression, to apply or make a ruling of precedent, case law. (Legal principles enunciated and embodied in judicial decisions that are derived from the application of particular areas of law to the facts of individual cases).reported decisions of appeals courts and other courts which make new interpretations of the law and, therefore, can be cited as precedents. These interpretations are distinguished from "statutory law" which is the statutes and codes (laws) enacted by legislative bodies, "regulatory law" which is regulations required by agencies based on statutes, and in some states, the Common Law, which is the generally accepted law carried down from England. The rulings in trials and hearings which are not appealed and not reported are not case law and, therefore, not precedent or new interpretations. Law students principally study case law to understand the application of law to facts and learn the courts' subsequent interpretations of statutes. First impression (known as primae impressionis in Latin) is a legal case in which there is no binding authority on the matter presented. Such a case can set forth a completely original issue of law for decision by the courts, which will then set a precedent for similar cases if a judge so rules.. Ratio decidendi (Latin plural rationes decidendi) is a Latin phrase meaning "the reason" or "the rationale for the decision". The ratio decidendi is "the point in a case that determines the judgment" or "the principle that the case establishes" In other words, ratio decidendi is a legal rule derived from, and consistent with, those parts of legal reasoning within a judgment on which the outcome of the case depends,this is done by way of:- Rules of Inference.Conclusions based on evidence given on what is already known and proven or can be reasonably implied from all known facts.         Precedents (case law) a Judges ruling where an existing law, is unclear, to make inclusions, Judges interpret the laws. very rarely is a bad or contentious precedent set, if there was it could be appealed in a higher court on appeal, with a panel of judges repealing the ruling or accepting it, as a final move it could be referred to the house of lords. A typical case law precedent was in the case of a post op trasexual rape, rape is none gender specific,   The defence claimed that as the vagina was a constructed vagina and did not meet the clinical description and reproductive function of a natal females vagina, then it could not be classed as rape, R versus John Matthews The ruling which confirmed that vaginal rape of a ranssexual woman may be prosecuted as rape October 1996 This important and under-reported ruling confirmed that non-consentual penile penetration of the surgically-constructed vagina of a transsexual woman can, in law, be rape if the other ingredients of the offence are satisfied. In this case, the defendant was acquitted, but an important precedent was set.  It allows the alleged assailant of a transsexual woman to be charged with the more serious offence of rape, rather than the lesser charge of sexual assault, which carries lighter penalties.    read the transcript. http://www.pfc.org.uk/caselaw/R%20versus%20John%20Matthews.pdf   Reading Crown Court RCC NO. T960397 Artillery House Tilehurst Road Reading, Berks Monday, 28th October, 1996 Before: MR JUSTICE HOOPER Regina -v- John Matthews Counsels names not supplied Ruling Monday, 28th October, 1996MR. JUSTICE HOOPER: I now give my reasons for the ruling which I made at the outset of the trial. Count One of the indictment charges the defendant with having raped “C” on the 25th of December 1995. Count Two charges him with indecent assault on a male person, the particulars of the offence being that on the same day he indecently assaulted “C”, a male person. The following admissions have been made: “The complainant was born a biological male on the 18th of November 1958. On the 24th of November 1994 the complainant underwent gender reassignment surgery, which surgery produced a well-constructed, cosmetically acceptable artificial vagina, to enable her to live in the female role. There are anatomical differences between the artificial and natural vagina, namely: 1.The artificial vagina is made from colon, not from vaginal tissue. 2.Being made from colon, the artificial vagina is lined by columnar epithelium, whereas a natural vagina is lined by squamous epithelium. 3.During sexual arousal the lining of the natural vagina undergoes a sweating-like reaction, known as transudation, the result of which is the production of lubricating fluid. An artificial vagina may produce mucus from the glands in the columnar epithelium, but his is a different process from transudation. 4.The natural vagina terminates at the cervix at its inner end, whereas the artificial vagina has no cervix. 5.At or just within the opening of a natural vagina are the two openings of the Bartholin’s Glands (which produce a small quantity of a highly lubricious fluid); the artificial vagina does not have these openings. 6.A natural vagina opens on the vestibule of the vulva, between the labia minora. “C” does not have a labia minora. 7.A natural vagina has the physiological capacity forenormous expansion, such a during childbirth. An artificial vagina does not have this capacity. A natural vagina has a normal female clitoris whichconsists of some erodible tissue and is covered with sensitive glands and a hood of tissue. The artificial vagina has a clitoris constructed of penile tissue.” As to the words in the second paragraph of those admissions, “in the female role”, counsel for the prosecution, Mr. Charles Byers, asked me to assume for the purposes of the ruling that the complainant had had the artificial vagina constructed to enable her to have sexual intercourse. I make that assumption in fact. That assumption was later supported by the evidence. The authorities establish that “C” is, for legal purposes, a male in those circumstances. In those circumstances no submission is made about Count Two. As to Count One, it is submitted by Mr. Peter Cooper, Queen’s Counsel for the defendant that, given the admitted facts, the defendant cannot as a matter of law be convicted of rape.    He submits that the non-consentual penile penetration of the artificial vagina of a biological male cannot, in law, be rape. Section 1 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956, as substituted by the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, provides as follows: 1“It is an offence for a man to commit a rape; to rape a woman or another man. 2.A man commits rape if (a), he has sexual intercourse with a person, whether vaginal or anal, who C at the time of the intercourse does not consent to it, and (b) at the time he knows the person does not consent to the intercourse or is reckless as to whether that person consents to it.” Mr. Cooper submits first that penile penetration of the “vagina” of a biological male does not constitute “sexual intercourse” within the meaning of Section 1. To resolve that issue it is necessary to examine the Sexual Offences Act as originally drafted and as amended by the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 1976. Section 1 of the 1956 Act provided: “It is a felony for a man to rape a woman. Rape required vaginal penetration of a woman. Anal penetration could not constitute rape. See the Queen v. Gaston (1981) 73 Criminal Appeal Reports 164 (Court of Appeal). Throughout the act there are references to sexual intercourse (for example, with a girl under 13 or with a defective.) Section 12(1) provided: “It is a felony for a person to commit buggery with another person or with an animal. Section 44, which remains unchanged, provides:  “Where on the trial of any offence under this act, it is necessary to prove sexual intercourse, whether natural or unnatural. It shall not be necessary to prove the completion of the intercourse by the emission of seed. That the intercourse shall be deemed complete upon proof of penetration only.”   The word “natural” in that section was being used to describe heterosexual intercourse. The word “unnatural” to describe heterosexual and homosexual anal intercourse and bestiality. See Gaston at 167. Bestiality requires vaginal or anal intercourse with an animal or by an animal. See: R.v. Bourne (1952) 36 Criminal Appeal Reports 125. The 1976 Act defined the offence of rape. Included within the definition were to be found the words: “A man commits rape if (a) he has unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman who at the time of the intercourse does not consent to it”. Section 7(2) of the 1970 Act provided: “References to sexual intercourse shall be construed in accordance with Section 44 of the Sexual Offences Act 1956, so far as it relates to natural intercourse. (Under which such intercourse is deemed complete on proof of penetration only)”. By virtue of paragraph 35 (4) Schedule 10 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, these words “shall be omitted” from Section 7(2). In my judgement there is no reason to limit the expression “sexual intercourse” in the way being submitted by Mr. Cooper. “Sexual intercourse”means penile penetration of the vagina or anus. The fact that the vagina might be that of a biological male does not prevent it from being “sexual intercourse”. He further submits that the words “vaginal intercourse” in Section 1 does not include penetration of a male’s artificial vagina. If a woman has a natural vagina which is anatomically irregular as a result of a birth defect, an operation or an accident, it would in my judgment be rape to penetrate it. (See S.v.S. (otherwise W) (No 2) [1962] All E.R. 55, at page 63). If a woman had an artificial vagina constructed because of a birth defect or an accident, could it be rape to penetrate it? I have been referred to no authority directly on point. In S.v.S, as Mr. Justice Ormerod said in Corbett v Corbett, [1970] 2 All E.R 33, at 49: “There are passages in the judgement which seemed togo as far as holding that a [woman], born without a vagina at all, could be capable of consummating a marriage by the construction of an entirely artificial one”. In Corbett, Mr. Justice Ormerod said that “he was prepared to hold that” a person with a completely artificial vagina would be incapable of consummating a marriage. In that case the respondent to a petition for a decree of nullity, was born a biological male who, like the complainant, had undergone gender reassignment surgery involving the construction of an artificial vagina. The decree was granted on the basis that the respondent was a male and, in any event, incapable of consummating the marriage because of the artificial vagina. In my judgment, whether or not a woman with an artificial vagina can consummate a marriage is of little help in resolving the issue whether penetration of it would constitute rape. In my judgement, it could. I turn then to the question whether penetration of a male’s artificial vagina can constitute rape in the circumstances reflected by the admissions. Section 1 uses the word “person”. The words “whether vaginal or anal” relate to the intercourse. Indeed, the section might more happily read: “A man commits rape if (a) he has sexual intercourse (whether vaginal or anal) with a person”. [Passage omitted.]Mr. Byers submits that the wording of the section is clear and that it includes penile penetration of a male, of a biological male’s artificial vagina. I accept that submission, notwithstanding that during the use of the offence in rape, in those circumstances it was apparently not-a matter which was mentioned during the debates other than this amendment. Furthermore, rape being the non-consensual penile penetration of either of the two intimate orifices, I see no reason why, as a matter of public policy, that the offence is not committed. In conclusion, therefore, in my judgement, penile penetration of a male’s biological artificial vagina can, in law, constitute rape. There is no dispute that, having resolved the matter in this way, I should direct the jury that, as a matter of law, the penile penetration of this complainant’s vagina is rape if the other ingredients of the offence are satisfied.   Remember this was before the advent of the GRA (Gender Recognition Act  2004)
    Jan 18, 2019 158
  • 10 Jan 2019
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    172 Posted by SEAO Developer
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    Jan 10, 2019 172
  • 29 Dec 2018
    After moving back near Oslo, I realised that I had limited supplies of two things, time and money. Well, okay, I had more than enough time. Money was and still is somewhat constrained at the moment. Somehow, I thought, there would be more social changes for me moving here and attaining the status of anonymity in the bigger city. Except, I don't live near the big city, just closer to it with better transportation alternatives. I thought I would be a lot farther along in my process of transition at this point. Sometimes, it just feels like I am ready to just throw in the towel and give in. I will admit to anyone that I'm not the most feminine person either in looks, voice, or demeanour. I am actually quite genderqueer, because it suites me at the moment. What I wouldn't give to have a nice pair of lovely big soft breasts and also a vagina to go with it. I just don't worry about it too much though. I am still managing to get by with a penis and little breasts. As far as after the move goes. I had to buy a fridge and that was a nightmare in itself. I waited over 2 months before canceling and ordering another. It cost a bit more and I have to make payments on it, but it's mine. I have been losing weight and also learning how to make and mix music. My ex-partner says I have a natural talent for it, so I guess that's good. I see the GIC people again next month and hopefully, I will finally be able to satisfy their weight restriction and start on tblocker and hrt properly. I think then I'll start to change things a bit more rapidly. I definitely do have plans to visit the UK (and Finland!) this Spring or Summer. It's mostly just a matter of sorting out the tickets and the work schedule. By the by, I don't actually work, I am a trainee and unpaid. If I do receive any form of remuneration, then it will be in the form of stock and experience. I am really looking forward to this coming year. I want to finally start getting out and meeting and mingling with people. Been ages since I have kissed anyone. Even longer if you think of things that fall outside of that area. Hope everyone has had a Happy Holiday and will enjoy a spectacular new year. As for myself, I'll continue to stay with my ex-partner until after new years day. It's completely platonic and we're more like sisters or very close family than anything else. My only trans friend in Norway. If anyone ever wants to chat about something (anything really) just shoot me a message and I'll try to get back to you as soon as I am able. Hugs to all you beautiful girls (and some guys!) and the rest of the lovely staff here at this site. Love, Rachel xxx
    162 Posted by Rachel Maxwell
  • After moving back near Oslo, I realised that I had limited supplies of two things, time and money. Well, okay, I had more than enough time. Money was and still is somewhat constrained at the moment. Somehow, I thought, there would be more social changes for me moving here and attaining the status of anonymity in the bigger city. Except, I don't live near the big city, just closer to it with better transportation alternatives. I thought I would be a lot farther along in my process of transition at this point. Sometimes, it just feels like I am ready to just throw in the towel and give in. I will admit to anyone that I'm not the most feminine person either in looks, voice, or demeanour. I am actually quite genderqueer, because it suites me at the moment. What I wouldn't give to have a nice pair of lovely big soft breasts and also a vagina to go with it. I just don't worry about it too much though. I am still managing to get by with a penis and little breasts. As far as after the move goes. I had to buy a fridge and that was a nightmare in itself. I waited over 2 months before canceling and ordering another. It cost a bit more and I have to make payments on it, but it's mine. I have been losing weight and also learning how to make and mix music. My ex-partner says I have a natural talent for it, so I guess that's good. I see the GIC people again next month and hopefully, I will finally be able to satisfy their weight restriction and start on tblocker and hrt properly. I think then I'll start to change things a bit more rapidly. I definitely do have plans to visit the UK (and Finland!) this Spring or Summer. It's mostly just a matter of sorting out the tickets and the work schedule. By the by, I don't actually work, I am a trainee and unpaid. If I do receive any form of remuneration, then it will be in the form of stock and experience. I am really looking forward to this coming year. I want to finally start getting out and meeting and mingling with people. Been ages since I have kissed anyone. Even longer if you think of things that fall outside of that area. Hope everyone has had a Happy Holiday and will enjoy a spectacular new year. As for myself, I'll continue to stay with my ex-partner until after new years day. It's completely platonic and we're more like sisters or very close family than anything else. My only trans friend in Norway. If anyone ever wants to chat about something (anything really) just shoot me a message and I'll try to get back to you as soon as I am able. Hugs to all you beautiful girls (and some guys!) and the rest of the lovely staff here at this site. Love, Rachel xxx
    Dec 29, 2018 162
  • 13 Oct 2018
    While genuine male to female trans-gendered languish in men's prisons, having fully transitioned, living the life, the prison authorities failed to recognise an  obvious impostor, a serial rapist, a child abuser, based on their previous criminal record.   Karen White, according to reports hadn't even begun to transition prior to her incarceration, being transferred to a woman's prison upon her/his own declaration. The prison authorities have the duty to establish a trans claimants genuine status, for that person's safety, well being and the protection of that person and other detainees.   Is it political correctness, gone mad or just plain incompetence that they keep getting it so wrong?   https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/trans-predator-karen-white-who-targeted-women-inmates-is-jailed-for-life-l3nvvn0sf   People are under the impression that Judges in the high court and Magistrates decide where a trans gender person serves their sentence, it's the prison authorities that have the task of assessing all the facts needed before sending them to prison, I am currently putting together a proposal paper that reports, facts about a trans person status, should be presented to court at a pre-sentence hearing.
    269 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • While genuine male to female trans-gendered languish in men's prisons, having fully transitioned, living the life, the prison authorities failed to recognise an  obvious impostor, a serial rapist, a child abuser, based on their previous criminal record.   Karen White, according to reports hadn't even begun to transition prior to her incarceration, being transferred to a woman's prison upon her/his own declaration. The prison authorities have the duty to establish a trans claimants genuine status, for that person's safety, well being and the protection of that person and other detainees.   Is it political correctness, gone mad or just plain incompetence that they keep getting it so wrong?   https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/trans-predator-karen-white-who-targeted-women-inmates-is-jailed-for-life-l3nvvn0sf   People are under the impression that Judges in the high court and Magistrates decide where a trans gender person serves their sentence, it's the prison authorities that have the task of assessing all the facts needed before sending them to prison, I am currently putting together a proposal paper that reports, facts about a trans person status, should be presented to court at a pre-sentence hearing.
    Oct 13, 2018 269
  • 01 Oct 2018
    I have posted this in the UK law forum  https://gendersociety.com/forums/32/uk-transgender-law in documents etc, because it has reference to birth certs. but think it would be interesting to everyone so have posted it here for general interest. Well I threatened to come up with some interesting facts. Legislation and Legal Judgements Impacting Trans People Sexual Offences Act 1967 This Act decriminalised homosexuality – though actually resulted in an increase in convictions for homosexuality. This was because it allowed sex between consenting adult men over the age of 21 only provided nobody else was in the same building – therefore two men taking a room in a hotel. living in shared accomodation, flat share or tower blocks were often reported, and subsequently raided and arrested. Since transsexual women were treated as male until after surgery – even if they were living and presenting as female -- many were arrested under this law, as homosexual men. Corbett v Corbett 1970 In 1970, April Ashley’s divorce made matters worse. Until then, post-surgery trans women had been able to change their birth certificates unofficially, to reflect their acquired gender. However, in the court case annulling her marriage to Arthur Corbett (Corbett v Corbett ), Justice Ormrod determined that trans people could not ever change sex, and therefore even after full gender reassignment, trans people remained legally in their birth gender. This made them unable to marry, and inhumanely treated in all legal matters, including imprisonment. Goodwin v. UK and I v UK (2002) The European Court of Human Rights held that the UK government’s failure to alter the birth certificates of transsexual people or to allow them to marry in their new gender role was a breach of the European Convention on Human Rights. This led directly to new legislation to once again clarify and restrict the extent of the judgement. Eventually this lead to the creation of the UK Gender Recognition Act.    Lynn Barber Published: 121AM BST 02 Jul 2006 Almost half a century after changing sex, April Ashley is now, officially, a woman, thanks to the 2004 Gender Recognition Act. She claims that John Prescott helped her with the paperwork - she knew him from when they both worked at a hotel in Wales and shared a bedroom, but back then she was a boy. She also claims to have had an affair with Grayson Perry, the Turner-prizewinning potter, and a one-night stand with Michael Hutchence, the INXS singer who gave her much pleasure with his "enormous whanger". These are the new cherries on the April Ashley cake - she must have sold her story at least a dozen times - but it is still an amazing cake. Born George Jamieson, the fourth of six children, in 1935, she was brought up in a Liverpool slum. Her father was lovable but drunk and mainly absent. Her mother was a "twisted" woman who liked to hold George by his feet and bang his head on the floor. From the age of three, George used to pray that he'd wake up a girl. At 15, he ran away to join the merchant navy. His break came in Paris where he was hired by the transvestite club Le Carrousel as "Toni April". By now, she was dressing as a woman full-time and taking hormones. "I was exquisite," she writes, "with slim shoulders and wonderful legs and incredible skin," as the photographs in the book attest. If only she could have coped with sex, she says, she could have been a great courtesan. But there was what she called "une petite inconvenance" and she longed to have it removed. Transvestites, she writes, are happy if they can "pass" as women, but for transsexuals like her "a vagina wasn't just a fancy, it was a need ". By 25, she'd saved enough to go to Dr Burou's clinic in Casablanca. He told her he'd done the operation only nine times: it was still experimental. But it worked (though I strongly advise skipping the chapter that describes it). She moved to London with a new identity, April Ashley, and a new career, fashion model, though the bookings dried up the minute she was outed by the Sunday People in 1961. Since then, she has had to live by being brazen - she was always "a sex-change first, and anything else second". She sought respectability by marrying a minor aristocrat, the Hon Arthur Corbett, son of Lord Rowallan the Chief Scout, but lost it in 1970 when he sought an annulment on the grounds that he was "a deviate" and she was a man. The judge agreed, and his ruling set back the cause of transsexual legal recognition for a generation. After the annulment, she worked for a while greeting customers at a fashionable Chelsea restaurant but had to give up when she had a heart attack: she was drinking more than 30 dry martinis a night. (She never had any interest in drugs, except when she was very young and ate the wicks from Benzedrine inhalers to stay awake, but says she has been "drinking for England" for most of her adult life.) She washed up in Hay-on-Wye where Richard Booth, "the king of Hay", appointed her Duchess, but she was so broke she lived on cabbage and baked beans. She was forced to apply for benefits and was sent on retraining courses to learn employable skills but, luckily, a Hay widower left her his house. She sold it and moved to New York then California, where she ended up working as a charity mugger for Greenpeace. Today, she lives in the south of France - though this book suggests that money must be tight again. The First Lady is full of good anecdotes and incidental delights. I am glad to know that Lionel Bart had a loo that played Food, Glorious Food when flushed, and I cherish her beautician's remark that, "Miss Ashley, if you think you've got hairy legs you should see Elizabeth Taylor's shoulders." But most of all I admire Ashley's courage. Her life has gone through appalling vicissitudes but she shows no self-pity. On the contrary, she learned to cope with loneliness as a child and "In the end, it rescues you. It prepared me for my life, enabled me to fight my corner on my own." If the British public has a better understanding of transsexualism now, it is thanks to April Ashley and her oft-told life story.  Lili Elbe 1886 - 1931 Lili Elbe, born Einar Wegener in 1886, began part time transition while living with her life long companion Gerda Wegener in the 'teens, and had surgery and full time transition in early 1930. Her marriage to Gerda was invalidated by the King of Denmark in October of 1930. Outed in the press, she may have faked her death in 1931, or may have really died months after her fifth operation, an operation that she hoped would allow her to have intercourse with the man to whom she was engaged to be married... Her story is told in frank and loving terms in her book, Man Into Woman, edited by Niels Hoyer, 1933. Both Lili and her partner, and legal wife before her surgery, Gerda Wegener, were well known painters and illustrators. But Gerda had far better commercial success and is still recognized today as one of the leading Art Deco artists of the early twentieth century.Lili was one of Gerda's favorite models, wearing women's high fashion or nude. As a fashion designer in Paris, Gerda was influential in setting fashion trends. It is amusing to consider that the 1920's small breasted feminine ideal may have been influenced by Lili's figure.  Mary Frith alias Moll Cutpurse 1584-1659 MARY FRITH, otherwise called Moll Cutpurse, a 17th century term for pickpocket was a notorious underworld figure who robbed travellers on Hounslow Heath, including Oliver Cromwell's associate, General Fairfax, for which she was sent to England's most notorious prison, Newgate Gaol. In the attire of a man, she plied her trade as Britain's first 'highwayman', as well as a fence and petty thief. Moll became the subject of a play written within her lifetime, The Roaring Girl by Thomas Middleton and Thomas Dekker. "She was a very tomrig or hoyden, and delighted only in boys' play and pastime, not minding or companying with the girls. Many a bang and blow this hoyting procured her, but she was not so to be tamed, or taken off from her rude inclinations. She could not endure that sedentary life of sewing or stitching; a sampler was as grievous to her as a winding sheet; and on her needle, bodkin and thimble she could not think quietly, wishing them changed into sword and dagger for a bout at cudgels. Her headgear and handkerchief (or what the fashion of those times was for girls to be dressed in) were alike tedious to her, she wearing them as handsomely as a dog would a doublet, She would fight with boys, and courageously beat them; run, jump, leap or hop with any of her contrary sex, or recreate herself with any other play whatsoever." Moll lived to be 75, and her last request was to be buried face down, in order to be rebellious even after death. Magnus Hirschfeld 1868-1935 A German sexologist in the early 20th Century, and himself a transvestite, Hirschfeld was the first man to systematically describe and work with transvestites and transsexuals both terms that he coined in his books in 1910 and 1923 respectively. Until Hirschfeld trans people had largely been considered homosexual and often treated that way. However in Berlin at the beginning of the nineteenth century there was a strong political campaign to decriminalise homosexuality and it was felt that "men dressed as women" was damaging their campaign. Labeling transvestites as different from Homosexual was considered an essential political move. That same argument still often finds favour amongst some gay activists. There had been an attempt by Havelock Ellis another sexologist to introduce term 'Eonism' after the Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont, following the lead of renowned sexologist Richard von Krafft-Ebbing who had used the names of the Marquis de Sade and Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, well-known models of sexual behaviour, to describe 'sadism' and 'masochism'. However the term transvestism was preferred though is tending to give way to a generic term of transgenderism today. Hirschfeld considered transvestite and transsexual persons to be a form of intersex. Working with surgeons in Berlin through his "Institute for Sexual Science" (Institut füer Sexualwissenschaft) he established and operated the world's first, modern medical, gender clinic. One of Hirschfeld's clients was Lili Elbe. The Institute was founded in 1919 and targeted and closed down by the Nazis in 1933 who burned all the contents of it's famous library. Thousands of homosexual men and transsexual women were subsequently sent to concentration camps and the few who survived were re-imprisoned by the allies after the liberation. Hirschfeld was an openly gay man who visited the gay and transgender bars and nightclubs of Berlin. His nickname in the gay community was "Aunt Magnesia." The rise of the Nazis forced him, as an openly gay jew, to leave Germany in 1930, never to return. He died in Paris in 1935. Hirschfeld and Harry Benjamin met in 1907, when Benjamin was still a medical student and later when Benjamin arranged for him to visit America on a speaking tour. Thus, Magnus Hirschfeld really deserves the appellation of "The Father of modern Transsexualism." The 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573 - 1627 - Henry Wriothesley Henry Wriothesley was a great friend and patron of William Shakespeare. How great the friendship is debatable, but almost half of Shakespeare's sonnets were dedicated to "WH" - strongly believed to be Henry Wriothesley. Just a few years ago a painting (shown bottom right), in the possession of the decendents of 3rd Earl of Southampton and believed to be an unknown female member of the family, was revealed to be more likely a painting of the Earl him self, as a woman. Judge for youself from pictures here. Is it possible that the Earl was a Transvestite or Transsexual and there may have been a relationship of some kind. There is no doubt that Shakespeare spent a great deal of time staying with Henry Wriothesley when in London for the Globe Theatre productions, and then there are the sonnets. One hundred and twenty-six are addressed to a young man known as the Fair Lord and believed to convey far more than friendship. This is Shakespeare's Sonnet Number 20 - dedicated to WH - which leaves no doubt. A woman's face with natures own hand painted Hast though the master-mistress of my passion; A woman's gentle heart, but not aquainted With shifting change, as is false woman's fashion; An eye more bright than theirs, less false in rolling Gilding the object whereupon it gazeth A man in hue all hues in his controlling Which steals men's eyes and women's souls amazeth. And for a woman wert though first created; Till Nature, as she wrought thee,fell a-doting, And by addition me of thee defeated, While adding one thing to my purpose nothing. But since she pick'd thee out for women's pleasure, Mine be thy love and thy love's use their treasure. Harry Benjamin 1885-1986 Originally a German national, Harry Benjamin emigrated to the U.S. just before the first world war in 1913. The medical standards and ethics body that governs treatment of transsexuals today is named after Dr. Benjamin: The "Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association". Harry Benjamin did much to develop medical treatment of transsexuality and related TG issues in the United States & Canada, bringing the German knowledge to North America in the early to mid 20th Century. Benjamin was on good terms with Magnus Hirschfeld the famous German sexologist who coined the terms "Transvestite" and "Transsexual," and Alfred Kinsey, the famous American sexologist, and agreed with Hirschfeld that transsexuals were a form of neurological intersex. In 1966, Benjamin published the seminal book, The Transsexual Phenomena. It is unfortunate that he followed the lamentable practice of the first half of the century of using gender pronouns consistent with sex assignment at birth even after transition. Benjamin was a gerontologist, considered an expert on life extension, as well as an endocrinologist and sexologist. Considering that he lived to be 100 years old, the claim may be valid.  Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont 1728 - 1810 Lawyer, diplomat, confidential envoy to Louis XI, and one of the finest swordsman in Europe, Charles Genevieve Louise Auguste Andre Timothee de Beaumont is best remembered for concurring with a 1777 court verdict that he had been masquerading and he was actually a women. After his death this was found to be untrue. In 1966, the UK's largest Transgender support organisation the Beaumont Society was set up naming itself after him. London gossip of the 1770s would have it that the Chevalier had assumed the disguise of a women as a member of the French Embassy and Secret Service in Russia from 1757 to 1760. This was unfounded. Later exiled during a period of French court intrigue, heavy betting in London regarding the question of his sex prompted a court case for which, in July 1777, the Court of King's Bench recorded its verdict that the Chevalier was a women. He was permitted to return to France and receive a pension with the condition that "she resumed the garments of her sex" and never appear in any part of the kingdom except in garments befitting a female. The Chevalier, who was also a Freemason (the illustration was produced as a jest on Freemasonry), after accepting this condition, never again attempted to enter a Masonic lodge. Billy Tipton 1914 1989 A minor, but well respected, jazz musician and travelling entertainer before settling down as an entertainment agent, Billy Tipton was born female but from the age of 19 lived as a man, marrying five women, adopting and fathering three boys. His first wife knew of his transgender status... the rest did not, after his death people still refused to accept it. Tipton died in 1989 and was 'outed' by the coroner. Soon after, non-transgender people speculated as to why a "woman" would live fifty-six years as a man, not telling even his wife and kids! The notion that he was transgender did not often enter their thoughts. Diane Wood Middlebrook has written a well researched book, Suits Me, on Mr. Tipton's life and times... unfortunately, she is unable to acknowledge Tipton as a transgender man, taking great pains to 'prove' that this was a woman who needed to present as a man in order to survive... and failing miserably. Middlebrook argues that Tipton was trapped by his success at passing as a man, but Tipton had many opportunities to step back from his life as a man, and refused to his dying day. Many of Tipton's friends, his ex-wives, and his children, now knowing full well that he was female bodied, insist that he was a man in the psychological and spiritual sense. His friends speak for him... now that he can not speak for himself.  Sylvia Rivera 1952 - 2002 Silvia Rivera literally led the charge at the Stonewall Inn, New York City, on the night of 27th of June, 1969, the night that a riot at the bar, touched off the open radicalization of the Gay Liberation Movement fighting back against police harassment directed at the most visible members of the community. Rivera spent most of her life at the forefront of both transgender and gay activism, tirelessly advocating and demonstrating for LGBT rights, inclusive social policies and struggling against transphobia. In 1970 Rivera formed a group called S.T.A.R. - Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries - to fight for the civil rights of transgender people, and provide them with social services support. The S.T.A.R. House lasted for two years until her crack habit caused her to lose the house. It was the first institution of its kind in New York City, and inspired the creation of future shelters for homeless street queens. In 2000, she reformed S.T.A.R. pressuring the Human Rights Campaign to be more inclusive of transgender people. Even when hospitalized with liver cancer, Rivera never stopped working for the civil rights of transgender people and several hours before she passed away on February 19, 2002 she was meeting with LGBT community leaders. 1927-1989 Christine Jorgesen Christine Jorgensen is undoubtedly the most famous transsexual figure in the 20th Century. Her very public life after her 1952 transition and surgery was a model for other transsexuals for decades. She was a tireless lecturer on the subject of transsexuality, pleading for understanding from a public that all too often wanted to see transsexuals as freaks or perverts. Although she considered herself primarily a photographer, she toured as a stage actress and singer. Ms. Jorgensen's poise, charm, and wit won the hearts of millions. Christine Jorgensen once appeared on the Dick Cavett talk show. He insulted her by asking about the status of her romantic life with her "wife" and she walked off the show! Since she was the only guest scheduled, Cavett spent the rest of that show talking about how he had not meant to offend her. Christine Jorgensen died in 1989, tragically of cancer, at the age of only 62 Stephen Whittle 1955 - Present day Stephen Whittle is probably the most famous of Britain's Trans Men and certainly the most influencial. Professor of Equalities Law in the School of Law at Manchester Metropolitan University and co-ordinator of the United Kingdom's FTM Network, he is best known as founder and vice-president of TransActivist organisation Press for Change and his work and a activist on behalf of the trans community since the age of twenty, in 1975. Stephen and his wife Sarah Rutherford have four children by artificial insemination but were unable to marry legally in the UK due to the infamous Corbet V Corbet Judgement in 1970. This led to significant legal efforts by him to become the children's legal father and considerable legal and political work leading to the successful passage of the Gender Recognition Act in 2004. Following the passing of the Act in October 2004, Stephen and Sarah legally married on June 18, 2005 the first legal marriage in the UK of a transsexual person and their opposite gender partner. In 2002 Stephen was awarded the Human Rights Award by the Civil Rights group Liberty and in the Queen's New Year's honours list in 2005 was made an OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) for his services to gender issues.   Cristine Jennifer Shye B.acc. BL (GS Admin) Don't get angry when others are talking behind your back... because they're just provingthat your life is obviously more interesting than theirs. Cristine Shye. 1983 - present day.   A woman I respect not only for just being herself but also for all of the time and effort she puts into teaching some of us things that we would otherwise no nothing about.  A woman who devotes herself to this website when she has absolutely no real need to but does so because she cares and still finds the time to study for her future.  Over the years I have learned things from her I did not know and I thank her for that with all of my heart.  Cristine you deserve the recognition     Julia Ford xxXxx
    266 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • I have posted this in the UK law forum  https://gendersociety.com/forums/32/uk-transgender-law in documents etc, because it has reference to birth certs. but think it would be interesting to everyone so have posted it here for general interest. Well I threatened to come up with some interesting facts. Legislation and Legal Judgements Impacting Trans People Sexual Offences Act 1967 This Act decriminalised homosexuality – though actually resulted in an increase in convictions for homosexuality. This was because it allowed sex between consenting adult men over the age of 21 only provided nobody else was in the same building – therefore two men taking a room in a hotel. living in shared accomodation, flat share or tower blocks were often reported, and subsequently raided and arrested. Since transsexual women were treated as male until after surgery – even if they were living and presenting as female -- many were arrested under this law, as homosexual men. Corbett v Corbett 1970 In 1970, April Ashley’s divorce made matters worse. Until then, post-surgery trans women had been able to change their birth certificates unofficially, to reflect their acquired gender. However, in the court case annulling her marriage to Arthur Corbett (Corbett v Corbett ), Justice Ormrod determined that trans people could not ever change sex, and therefore even after full gender reassignment, trans people remained legally in their birth gender. This made them unable to marry, and inhumanely treated in all legal matters, including imprisonment. Goodwin v. UK and I v UK (2002) The European Court of Human Rights held that the UK government’s failure to alter the birth certificates of transsexual people or to allow them to marry in their new gender role was a breach of the European Convention on Human Rights. This led directly to new legislation to once again clarify and restrict the extent of the judgement. Eventually this lead to the creation of the UK Gender Recognition Act.    Lynn Barber Published: 121AM BST 02 Jul 2006 Almost half a century after changing sex, April Ashley is now, officially, a woman, thanks to the 2004 Gender Recognition Act. She claims that John Prescott helped her with the paperwork - she knew him from when they both worked at a hotel in Wales and shared a bedroom, but back then she was a boy. She also claims to have had an affair with Grayson Perry, the Turner-prizewinning potter, and a one-night stand with Michael Hutchence, the INXS singer who gave her much pleasure with his "enormous whanger". These are the new cherries on the April Ashley cake - she must have sold her story at least a dozen times - but it is still an amazing cake. Born George Jamieson, the fourth of six children, in 1935, she was brought up in a Liverpool slum. Her father was lovable but drunk and mainly absent. Her mother was a "twisted" woman who liked to hold George by his feet and bang his head on the floor. From the age of three, George used to pray that he'd wake up a girl. At 15, he ran away to join the merchant navy. His break came in Paris where he was hired by the transvestite club Le Carrousel as "Toni April". By now, she was dressing as a woman full-time and taking hormones. "I was exquisite," she writes, "with slim shoulders and wonderful legs and incredible skin," as the photographs in the book attest. If only she could have coped with sex, she says, she could have been a great courtesan. But there was what she called "une petite inconvenance" and she longed to have it removed. Transvestites, she writes, are happy if they can "pass" as women, but for transsexuals like her "a vagina wasn't just a fancy, it was a need ". By 25, she'd saved enough to go to Dr Burou's clinic in Casablanca. He told her he'd done the operation only nine times: it was still experimental. But it worked (though I strongly advise skipping the chapter that describes it). She moved to London with a new identity, April Ashley, and a new career, fashion model, though the bookings dried up the minute she was outed by the Sunday People in 1961. Since then, she has had to live by being brazen - she was always "a sex-change first, and anything else second". She sought respectability by marrying a minor aristocrat, the Hon Arthur Corbett, son of Lord Rowallan the Chief Scout, but lost it in 1970 when he sought an annulment on the grounds that he was "a deviate" and she was a man. The judge agreed, and his ruling set back the cause of transsexual legal recognition for a generation. After the annulment, she worked for a while greeting customers at a fashionable Chelsea restaurant but had to give up when she had a heart attack: she was drinking more than 30 dry martinis a night. (She never had any interest in drugs, except when she was very young and ate the wicks from Benzedrine inhalers to stay awake, but says she has been "drinking for England" for most of her adult life.) She washed up in Hay-on-Wye where Richard Booth, "the king of Hay", appointed her Duchess, but she was so broke she lived on cabbage and baked beans. She was forced to apply for benefits and was sent on retraining courses to learn employable skills but, luckily, a Hay widower left her his house. She sold it and moved to New York then California, where she ended up working as a charity mugger for Greenpeace. Today, she lives in the south of France - though this book suggests that money must be tight again. The First Lady is full of good anecdotes and incidental delights. I am glad to know that Lionel Bart had a loo that played Food, Glorious Food when flushed, and I cherish her beautician's remark that, "Miss Ashley, if you think you've got hairy legs you should see Elizabeth Taylor's shoulders." But most of all I admire Ashley's courage. Her life has gone through appalling vicissitudes but she shows no self-pity. On the contrary, she learned to cope with loneliness as a child and "In the end, it rescues you. It prepared me for my life, enabled me to fight my corner on my own." If the British public has a better understanding of transsexualism now, it is thanks to April Ashley and her oft-told life story.  Lili Elbe 1886 - 1931 Lili Elbe, born Einar Wegener in 1886, began part time transition while living with her life long companion Gerda Wegener in the 'teens, and had surgery and full time transition in early 1930. Her marriage to Gerda was invalidated by the King of Denmark in October of 1930. Outed in the press, she may have faked her death in 1931, or may have really died months after her fifth operation, an operation that she hoped would allow her to have intercourse with the man to whom she was engaged to be married... Her story is told in frank and loving terms in her book, Man Into Woman, edited by Niels Hoyer, 1933. Both Lili and her partner, and legal wife before her surgery, Gerda Wegener, were well known painters and illustrators. But Gerda had far better commercial success and is still recognized today as one of the leading Art Deco artists of the early twentieth century.Lili was one of Gerda's favorite models, wearing women's high fashion or nude. As a fashion designer in Paris, Gerda was influential in setting fashion trends. It is amusing to consider that the 1920's small breasted feminine ideal may have been influenced by Lili's figure.  Mary Frith alias Moll Cutpurse 1584-1659 MARY FRITH, otherwise called Moll Cutpurse, a 17th century term for pickpocket was a notorious underworld figure who robbed travellers on Hounslow Heath, including Oliver Cromwell's associate, General Fairfax, for which she was sent to England's most notorious prison, Newgate Gaol. In the attire of a man, she plied her trade as Britain's first 'highwayman', as well as a fence and petty thief. Moll became the subject of a play written within her lifetime, The Roaring Girl by Thomas Middleton and Thomas Dekker. "She was a very tomrig or hoyden, and delighted only in boys' play and pastime, not minding or companying with the girls. Many a bang and blow this hoyting procured her, but she was not so to be tamed, or taken off from her rude inclinations. She could not endure that sedentary life of sewing or stitching; a sampler was as grievous to her as a winding sheet; and on her needle, bodkin and thimble she could not think quietly, wishing them changed into sword and dagger for a bout at cudgels. Her headgear and handkerchief (or what the fashion of those times was for girls to be dressed in) were alike tedious to her, she wearing them as handsomely as a dog would a doublet, She would fight with boys, and courageously beat them; run, jump, leap or hop with any of her contrary sex, or recreate herself with any other play whatsoever." Moll lived to be 75, and her last request was to be buried face down, in order to be rebellious even after death. Magnus Hirschfeld 1868-1935 A German sexologist in the early 20th Century, and himself a transvestite, Hirschfeld was the first man to systematically describe and work with transvestites and transsexuals both terms that he coined in his books in 1910 and 1923 respectively. Until Hirschfeld trans people had largely been considered homosexual and often treated that way. However in Berlin at the beginning of the nineteenth century there was a strong political campaign to decriminalise homosexuality and it was felt that "men dressed as women" was damaging their campaign. Labeling transvestites as different from Homosexual was considered an essential political move. That same argument still often finds favour amongst some gay activists. There had been an attempt by Havelock Ellis another sexologist to introduce term 'Eonism' after the Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont, following the lead of renowned sexologist Richard von Krafft-Ebbing who had used the names of the Marquis de Sade and Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, well-known models of sexual behaviour, to describe 'sadism' and 'masochism'. However the term transvestism was preferred though is tending to give way to a generic term of transgenderism today. Hirschfeld considered transvestite and transsexual persons to be a form of intersex. Working with surgeons in Berlin through his "Institute for Sexual Science" (Institut füer Sexualwissenschaft) he established and operated the world's first, modern medical, gender clinic. One of Hirschfeld's clients was Lili Elbe. The Institute was founded in 1919 and targeted and closed down by the Nazis in 1933 who burned all the contents of it's famous library. Thousands of homosexual men and transsexual women were subsequently sent to concentration camps and the few who survived were re-imprisoned by the allies after the liberation. Hirschfeld was an openly gay man who visited the gay and transgender bars and nightclubs of Berlin. His nickname in the gay community was "Aunt Magnesia." The rise of the Nazis forced him, as an openly gay jew, to leave Germany in 1930, never to return. He died in Paris in 1935. Hirschfeld and Harry Benjamin met in 1907, when Benjamin was still a medical student and later when Benjamin arranged for him to visit America on a speaking tour. Thus, Magnus Hirschfeld really deserves the appellation of "The Father of modern Transsexualism." The 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573 - 1627 - Henry Wriothesley Henry Wriothesley was a great friend and patron of William Shakespeare. How great the friendship is debatable, but almost half of Shakespeare's sonnets were dedicated to "WH" - strongly believed to be Henry Wriothesley. Just a few years ago a painting (shown bottom right), in the possession of the decendents of 3rd Earl of Southampton and believed to be an unknown female member of the family, was revealed to be more likely a painting of the Earl him self, as a woman. Judge for youself from pictures here. Is it possible that the Earl was a Transvestite or Transsexual and there may have been a relationship of some kind. There is no doubt that Shakespeare spent a great deal of time staying with Henry Wriothesley when in London for the Globe Theatre productions, and then there are the sonnets. One hundred and twenty-six are addressed to a young man known as the Fair Lord and believed to convey far more than friendship. This is Shakespeare's Sonnet Number 20 - dedicated to WH - which leaves no doubt. A woman's face with natures own hand painted Hast though the master-mistress of my passion; A woman's gentle heart, but not aquainted With shifting change, as is false woman's fashion; An eye more bright than theirs, less false in rolling Gilding the object whereupon it gazeth A man in hue all hues in his controlling Which steals men's eyes and women's souls amazeth. And for a woman wert though first created; Till Nature, as she wrought thee,fell a-doting, And by addition me of thee defeated, While adding one thing to my purpose nothing. But since she pick'd thee out for women's pleasure, Mine be thy love and thy love's use their treasure. Harry Benjamin 1885-1986 Originally a German national, Harry Benjamin emigrated to the U.S. just before the first world war in 1913. The medical standards and ethics body that governs treatment of transsexuals today is named after Dr. Benjamin: The "Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association". Harry Benjamin did much to develop medical treatment of transsexuality and related TG issues in the United States & Canada, bringing the German knowledge to North America in the early to mid 20th Century. Benjamin was on good terms with Magnus Hirschfeld the famous German sexologist who coined the terms "Transvestite" and "Transsexual," and Alfred Kinsey, the famous American sexologist, and agreed with Hirschfeld that transsexuals were a form of neurological intersex. In 1966, Benjamin published the seminal book, The Transsexual Phenomena. It is unfortunate that he followed the lamentable practice of the first half of the century of using gender pronouns consistent with sex assignment at birth even after transition. Benjamin was a gerontologist, considered an expert on life extension, as well as an endocrinologist and sexologist. Considering that he lived to be 100 years old, the claim may be valid.  Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont 1728 - 1810 Lawyer, diplomat, confidential envoy to Louis XI, and one of the finest swordsman in Europe, Charles Genevieve Louise Auguste Andre Timothee de Beaumont is best remembered for concurring with a 1777 court verdict that he had been masquerading and he was actually a women. After his death this was found to be untrue. In 1966, the UK's largest Transgender support organisation the Beaumont Society was set up naming itself after him. London gossip of the 1770s would have it that the Chevalier had assumed the disguise of a women as a member of the French Embassy and Secret Service in Russia from 1757 to 1760. This was unfounded. Later exiled during a period of French court intrigue, heavy betting in London regarding the question of his sex prompted a court case for which, in July 1777, the Court of King's Bench recorded its verdict that the Chevalier was a women. He was permitted to return to France and receive a pension with the condition that "she resumed the garments of her sex" and never appear in any part of the kingdom except in garments befitting a female. The Chevalier, who was also a Freemason (the illustration was produced as a jest on Freemasonry), after accepting this condition, never again attempted to enter a Masonic lodge. Billy Tipton 1914 1989 A minor, but well respected, jazz musician and travelling entertainer before settling down as an entertainment agent, Billy Tipton was born female but from the age of 19 lived as a man, marrying five women, adopting and fathering three boys. His first wife knew of his transgender status... the rest did not, after his death people still refused to accept it. Tipton died in 1989 and was 'outed' by the coroner. Soon after, non-transgender people speculated as to why a "woman" would live fifty-six years as a man, not telling even his wife and kids! The notion that he was transgender did not often enter their thoughts. Diane Wood Middlebrook has written a well researched book, Suits Me, on Mr. Tipton's life and times... unfortunately, she is unable to acknowledge Tipton as a transgender man, taking great pains to 'prove' that this was a woman who needed to present as a man in order to survive... and failing miserably. Middlebrook argues that Tipton was trapped by his success at passing as a man, but Tipton had many opportunities to step back from his life as a man, and refused to his dying day. Many of Tipton's friends, his ex-wives, and his children, now knowing full well that he was female bodied, insist that he was a man in the psychological and spiritual sense. His friends speak for him... now that he can not speak for himself.  Sylvia Rivera 1952 - 2002 Silvia Rivera literally led the charge at the Stonewall Inn, New York City, on the night of 27th of June, 1969, the night that a riot at the bar, touched off the open radicalization of the Gay Liberation Movement fighting back against police harassment directed at the most visible members of the community. Rivera spent most of her life at the forefront of both transgender and gay activism, tirelessly advocating and demonstrating for LGBT rights, inclusive social policies and struggling against transphobia. In 1970 Rivera formed a group called S.T.A.R. - Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries - to fight for the civil rights of transgender people, and provide them with social services support. The S.T.A.R. House lasted for two years until her crack habit caused her to lose the house. It was the first institution of its kind in New York City, and inspired the creation of future shelters for homeless street queens. In 2000, she reformed S.T.A.R. pressuring the Human Rights Campaign to be more inclusive of transgender people. Even when hospitalized with liver cancer, Rivera never stopped working for the civil rights of transgender people and several hours before she passed away on February 19, 2002 she was meeting with LGBT community leaders. 1927-1989 Christine Jorgesen Christine Jorgensen is undoubtedly the most famous transsexual figure in the 20th Century. Her very public life after her 1952 transition and surgery was a model for other transsexuals for decades. She was a tireless lecturer on the subject of transsexuality, pleading for understanding from a public that all too often wanted to see transsexuals as freaks or perverts. Although she considered herself primarily a photographer, she toured as a stage actress and singer. Ms. Jorgensen's poise, charm, and wit won the hearts of millions. Christine Jorgensen once appeared on the Dick Cavett talk show. He insulted her by asking about the status of her romantic life with her "wife" and she walked off the show! Since she was the only guest scheduled, Cavett spent the rest of that show talking about how he had not meant to offend her. Christine Jorgensen died in 1989, tragically of cancer, at the age of only 62 Stephen Whittle 1955 - Present day Stephen Whittle is probably the most famous of Britain's Trans Men and certainly the most influencial. Professor of Equalities Law in the School of Law at Manchester Metropolitan University and co-ordinator of the United Kingdom's FTM Network, he is best known as founder and vice-president of TransActivist organisation Press for Change and his work and a activist on behalf of the trans community since the age of twenty, in 1975. Stephen and his wife Sarah Rutherford have four children by artificial insemination but were unable to marry legally in the UK due to the infamous Corbet V Corbet Judgement in 1970. This led to significant legal efforts by him to become the children's legal father and considerable legal and political work leading to the successful passage of the Gender Recognition Act in 2004. Following the passing of the Act in October 2004, Stephen and Sarah legally married on June 18, 2005 the first legal marriage in the UK of a transsexual person and their opposite gender partner. In 2002 Stephen was awarded the Human Rights Award by the Civil Rights group Liberty and in the Queen's New Year's honours list in 2005 was made an OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) for his services to gender issues.   Cristine Jennifer Shye B.acc. BL (GS Admin) Don't get angry when others are talking behind your back... because they're just provingthat your life is obviously more interesting than theirs. Cristine Shye. 1983 - present day.   A woman I respect not only for just being herself but also for all of the time and effort she puts into teaching some of us things that we would otherwise no nothing about.  A woman who devotes herself to this website when she has absolutely no real need to but does so because she cares and still finds the time to study for her future.  Over the years I have learned things from her I did not know and I thank her for that with all of my heart.  Cristine you deserve the recognition     Julia Ford xxXxx
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