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Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc 's Entries

40 blogs
  • 27 Oct 2019
    https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10502-Uk-Goverment-discriminated-agaisnt-the-Trandgendered- Because your birth certificate depicts your recognised gender in law, a fact true when registered,    If a person applies for a GRC when it's issued the birth certificate is then altered to reflect the new gender,  they are then entitled to their pension at an earlier age in line with a woman's right's, some transgendered married people do not wish to apply for a GRC because they are under the impression a divorce is required BUT under the 2010 marriage act revisions 2013 a person can apply for a new amended marriage certificate at the same time the new birth certificate is issued, with a change of gender, before one had to get an annulment or a divorce and then enter a civil type marriage, now it saves all that expense and heart ache of going through that process for those wishing to stay married.   When people start their transition, they should ensure that DWP and all agencies are informed, and original Change of name deed polls are sent. The definition of a legal original document (not a photo copy) so print of 10 or more copies, of the document get each one witnessed and signed then sign them all in front of the witness, now you have 10 original deed polls.   A person can't grumble if they don't want or can't be arsed to comply with a few simple lawful requirements.   Otherwise every Tom, Dick & Harry will be taking advantage of the system,   People go to the trouble of changing their gender on their passports, driving documents, bank accounts, bank accounts, doctors and medical records, to get the recognition the want , need, why not apply for the GRC to get the pension?   Why do some people think this is discrimination,  Is having to pass a driving test, pay NI contributions, tax is that a form of general discrimination???? IF ANYTHING THE PENSION SYSTEM MEN  v WOMEN IS GENERALLY SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION UNDER THE EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES ACT. The amendment to the 2010 marriage act, 2013, when applying for a GRC, by both parties signing a statutory declaration of mutual agreement to continue in the marriage a new status marriage certificate will be issued along with a new birth certificate. not to be confused with a civil partnership. Part 1 of Schedule 5 makes changes to the Gender Recognition Act 2004 (the “Gender Recognition Act”). The Gender Recognition Act enables transsexual people to change their legal gender by applying for a gender recognition certificate under section 1 of that Act. The issue of a full gender recognition certificate enables recipients to be recognised for all legal purposes in their new gender (“the acquired gender”). Under the previous law, transsexual people who are married or in a civil partnership must end their marriage or civil partnership before a full gender recognition certificate can be issued. This is achieved by the Gender Recognition Panel issuing an interim gender recognition certificate to married applicants and applicants in civil partnerships, which causes the marriage or civil partnership to become voidable. Applicants then have six months from the date of issue of the interim gender recognition certificate to apply to the court to end their marriage or civil partnership. Once a marriage or civil partnership has been annulled (or a divorce or dissolution has occurred in Scotland) the court can issue a full gender recognition certificate. 146.Part 1 of this Schedule amends the Gender Recognition Act to enable an existing marriage registered in England and Wales or outside the UK (“protected marriage” defined in paragraph 14 as a marriage under the law of England and Wales, or a marriage under the law of a country or territory outside the United Kingdom) to continue where one or both parties change their legal gender and both parties wish to remain married. It also amends that Act to enable a civil partnership (“protected civil partnership” defined in paragraph 14 as a civil partnership under the law of England and Wales) to continue where both parties change their legal gender simultaneously and wish to remain in their civil partnership. 147.Paragraph 2 inserts new subsections (6A), (6B) and (6C) which amend the evidence requirements in section 3 of the Gender Recognition Act. At present, section 3(6)(a) of that Act requires transsexual people who apply to the Gender Recognition Panel for a gender recognition certificate to submit a statutory declaration as to whether they are married or in a civil partnership. This enables the Gender Recognition Panel to determine whether to issue a full gender recognition certificate (for people who are not married or in a civil partnership) or an interim certificate (for people who are married or in a civil partnership). 148.New subsection (6A) requires married applicants to include in their statutory declaration an additional declaration as to where their marriage was registered. This will enable the Gender Recognition Panel to determine whether the marriage is a protected marriage. Where the marriage is a protected marriage, new subsection (6B) requires an application to contain a declaration by the applicant’s spouse that he or she consents to the marriage continuing after the issue of a full gender recognition certificate (a “statutory declaration of consent”), or a statutory declaration by the applicant that his or her spouse has not made such a declaration. If the application contains a statutory declaration of consent by the applicant’s spouse, new subsection (6C) requires the Gender Recognition Panel to inform the spouse that an application has been made. 149.Paragraph 3 replaces existing subsections (2) and (3) of section 4 of the Gender Recognition Act (which provides for the issue of interim and full gender recognition certificates following an application) and inserts new subsections (3A) and (3B) into that section. The effect of these amendments is to enable a full gender recognition certificate to be issued:     https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10502-Uk-Goverment-discriminated-agaisnt-the-Trandgendered- F311AChange in gender of party to marriage (1)This section applies in relation to a protected marriage if (by virtue of section 4(2)(b) or 4A) a full gender recognition certificate is issued to a party to the marriage. (2)The continuity of the protected marriage is not affected by the relevant change in gender. (3)If the protected marriage is a foreign marriage— (a)the continuity of the marriage continues by virtue of subsection (2) notwithstanding any impediment under the proper law of the marriage; The ECJ found that the UK's marriage annulment condition (designed to avoid marriage between persons of the same sex) is "unrelated" to the retirement pension scheme. And so it concluded that UK legislation "constitutes direct discrimination based on sex''  and is therefore in breach of European law In my considered opinion, put simply this was not a win for the trangendered woman, as it stands legally she is still male, the win was for discrimination against men in general, the emphasis of the judgement was discrimination based on sex under the equality and oportuniities act. In the UK at present Trans people are not legally regarded in their adopted gender regarding the marriage act and for earlier pensions until the have a Gender Recognition Certificate     The EHRC ruling is rather confusing, stating that pensions are not related to the GRA, and that it is a gender issue, does that mean now that men can apply for their pension on the same terms that women get an earlier payment.    So throughout the EU it will cost billions.   Technically until someone is lawfully recognised in their new gender hence the GRP authorising the issue of a new birth certificate.   Until 2013 same sex marriage was not recognised, which in my considered opinion now means throughout the EU countries will have to amend their gender recognition acts, acts that at the time of introduction were ratified by the European Courts of Human rights.   Vatican City a separate state within the EU is exempt from complying in the main with various laws especially same sex marriage based on religious grounds,    As is The Irish republic, Spain and Portugal.    we have seen that some states have been forced to drop enforced medical procedures to qualify for a GRC, but the EU does not enforce those countries that have not dropped these procedures. Which basically means that someone in each member state will have to  take up issues with their own legal systems and then appeal to Strasbourg for a ruling, EU Human rights laws, are lacking continuance, once a judgement has been made an edict should be issued ordering all member states to amend and add to their own acts similar to our UK Judicial Precedent. Cristine say's Basically the court has ruled that each individual state has the right to impose restrictions rules in relation to what is termed a legal marriage and the conditions imposed within the scope of it's own GRA, in aspects of the marriage, but in this case the overriding factor is the unequal differential as to at what age men and women can apply for and receive their pensions.
  • https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10502-Uk-Goverment-discriminated-agaisnt-the-Trandgendered- Because your birth certificate depicts your recognised gender in law, a fact true when registered,    If a person applies for a GRC when it's issued the birth certificate is then altered to reflect the new gender,  they are then entitled to their pension at an earlier age in line with a woman's right's, some transgendered married people do not wish to apply for a GRC because they are under the impression a divorce is required BUT under the 2010 marriage act revisions 2013 a person can apply for a new amended marriage certificate at the same time the new birth certificate is issued, with a change of gender, before one had to get an annulment or a divorce and then enter a civil type marriage, now it saves all that expense and heart ache of going through that process for those wishing to stay married.   When people start their transition, they should ensure that DWP and all agencies are informed, and original Change of name deed polls are sent. The definition of a legal original document (not a photo copy) so print of 10 or more copies, of the document get each one witnessed and signed then sign them all in front of the witness, now you have 10 original deed polls.   A person can't grumble if they don't want or can't be arsed to comply with a few simple lawful requirements.   Otherwise every Tom, Dick & Harry will be taking advantage of the system,   People go to the trouble of changing their gender on their passports, driving documents, bank accounts, bank accounts, doctors and medical records, to get the recognition the want , need, why not apply for the GRC to get the pension?   Why do some people think this is discrimination,  Is having to pass a driving test, pay NI contributions, tax is that a form of general discrimination???? IF ANYTHING THE PENSION SYSTEM MEN  v WOMEN IS GENERALLY SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION UNDER THE EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES ACT. The amendment to the 2010 marriage act, 2013, when applying for a GRC, by both parties signing a statutory declaration of mutual agreement to continue in the marriage a new status marriage certificate will be issued along with a new birth certificate. not to be confused with a civil partnership. Part 1 of Schedule 5 makes changes to the Gender Recognition Act 2004 (the “Gender Recognition Act”). The Gender Recognition Act enables transsexual people to change their legal gender by applying for a gender recognition certificate under section 1 of that Act. The issue of a full gender recognition certificate enables recipients to be recognised for all legal purposes in their new gender (“the acquired gender”). Under the previous law, transsexual people who are married or in a civil partnership must end their marriage or civil partnership before a full gender recognition certificate can be issued. This is achieved by the Gender Recognition Panel issuing an interim gender recognition certificate to married applicants and applicants in civil partnerships, which causes the marriage or civil partnership to become voidable. Applicants then have six months from the date of issue of the interim gender recognition certificate to apply to the court to end their marriage or civil partnership. Once a marriage or civil partnership has been annulled (or a divorce or dissolution has occurred in Scotland) the court can issue a full gender recognition certificate. 146.Part 1 of this Schedule amends the Gender Recognition Act to enable an existing marriage registered in England and Wales or outside the UK (“protected marriage” defined in paragraph 14 as a marriage under the law of England and Wales, or a marriage under the law of a country or territory outside the United Kingdom) to continue where one or both parties change their legal gender and both parties wish to remain married. It also amends that Act to enable a civil partnership (“protected civil partnership” defined in paragraph 14 as a civil partnership under the law of England and Wales) to continue where both parties change their legal gender simultaneously and wish to remain in their civil partnership. 147.Paragraph 2 inserts new subsections (6A), (6B) and (6C) which amend the evidence requirements in section 3 of the Gender Recognition Act. At present, section 3(6)(a) of that Act requires transsexual people who apply to the Gender Recognition Panel for a gender recognition certificate to submit a statutory declaration as to whether they are married or in a civil partnership. This enables the Gender Recognition Panel to determine whether to issue a full gender recognition certificate (for people who are not married or in a civil partnership) or an interim certificate (for people who are married or in a civil partnership). 148.New subsection (6A) requires married applicants to include in their statutory declaration an additional declaration as to where their marriage was registered. This will enable the Gender Recognition Panel to determine whether the marriage is a protected marriage. Where the marriage is a protected marriage, new subsection (6B) requires an application to contain a declaration by the applicant’s spouse that he or she consents to the marriage continuing after the issue of a full gender recognition certificate (a “statutory declaration of consent”), or a statutory declaration by the applicant that his or her spouse has not made such a declaration. If the application contains a statutory declaration of consent by the applicant’s spouse, new subsection (6C) requires the Gender Recognition Panel to inform the spouse that an application has been made. 149.Paragraph 3 replaces existing subsections (2) and (3) of section 4 of the Gender Recognition Act (which provides for the issue of interim and full gender recognition certificates following an application) and inserts new subsections (3A) and (3B) into that section. The effect of these amendments is to enable a full gender recognition certificate to be issued:     https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/10502-Uk-Goverment-discriminated-agaisnt-the-Trandgendered- F311AChange in gender of party to marriage (1)This section applies in relation to a protected marriage if (by virtue of section 4(2)(b) or 4A) a full gender recognition certificate is issued to a party to the marriage. (2)The continuity of the protected marriage is not affected by the relevant change in gender. (3)If the protected marriage is a foreign marriage— (a)the continuity of the marriage continues by virtue of subsection (2) notwithstanding any impediment under the proper law of the marriage; The ECJ found that the UK's marriage annulment condition (designed to avoid marriage between persons of the same sex) is "unrelated" to the retirement pension scheme. And so it concluded that UK legislation "constitutes direct discrimination based on sex''  and is therefore in breach of European law In my considered opinion, put simply this was not a win for the trangendered woman, as it stands legally she is still male, the win was for discrimination against men in general, the emphasis of the judgement was discrimination based on sex under the equality and oportuniities act. In the UK at present Trans people are not legally regarded in their adopted gender regarding the marriage act and for earlier pensions until the have a Gender Recognition Certificate     The EHRC ruling is rather confusing, stating that pensions are not related to the GRA, and that it is a gender issue, does that mean now that men can apply for their pension on the same terms that women get an earlier payment.    So throughout the EU it will cost billions.   Technically until someone is lawfully recognised in their new gender hence the GRP authorising the issue of a new birth certificate.   Until 2013 same sex marriage was not recognised, which in my considered opinion now means throughout the EU countries will have to amend their gender recognition acts, acts that at the time of introduction were ratified by the European Courts of Human rights.   Vatican City a separate state within the EU is exempt from complying in the main with various laws especially same sex marriage based on religious grounds,    As is The Irish republic, Spain and Portugal.    we have seen that some states have been forced to drop enforced medical procedures to qualify for a GRC, but the EU does not enforce those countries that have not dropped these procedures. Which basically means that someone in each member state will have to  take up issues with their own legal systems and then appeal to Strasbourg for a ruling, EU Human rights laws, are lacking continuance, once a judgement has been made an edict should be issued ordering all member states to amend and add to their own acts similar to our UK Judicial Precedent. Cristine say's Basically the court has ruled that each individual state has the right to impose restrictions rules in relation to what is termed a legal marriage and the conditions imposed within the scope of it's own GRA, in aspects of the marriage, but in this case the overriding factor is the unequal differential as to at what age men and women can apply for and receive their pensions.
    Oct 27, 2019 30
  • 22 Oct 2019
    Lawyers And Light BulbsQ: How many lawyers does it take to change a light bulb? This is a question that’s been at the forefront of discussion amongst the most prestigious scholars and lawmakers of the world. Finally, after getting them all together – the question has been answered. A: Such number as may be deemed necessary to perform the stated task in a timely and efficient manner within the strictures of the following agreement. Whereas the party of the first part, also known as ‘the lawyers’ and the party of the second part, also known as ‘the light bulb’ do hereby agree to a transaction wherein the party of the second part shall be removed from the current position as a result of failure to perform previously agreed upon duties, i.e. the lighting, elucidation, and otherwise illumination of the area ranging from the front (North) door, through the entryway, terminating at an area just through the primary living area, demarcated by the beginning of the carpet, any spillover illumination being at the option of the party of the second part and not required by the aforementioned agreement between the parties. The aforementioned removal transaction shall include, but not be limited to, the following steps: 1. The party of the first part shall, with or without elevation at his option, by means of a chair, step stool, ladder or any other means of elevation, grasp the party of the second part and rotate the party of the second part in a counter clockwise direction, said direction being non-negotiable. Said grasping and rotation of the party of the second part shall be undertaken by the party of the first part to maintain the structural integrity of the party of the second part, notwithstanding the aforementioned failure of the party of the second part to perform the customary and agreed upon duties. The foregoing notwithstanding, however, both parties stipulate that structural failure of the party of the second part may be incidental to the aforementioned failure to perform and in such case the party of the first part shall be held blameless for such structural failure insofar as the non-negotiable directional codicil is observed by the party of the first part throughout. 2. Upon reaching a point where the party of the second part becomes seperated from the party of the third part, also known as the ‘receptacle’, the party of the first part shall have the option of disposing of the party of the second part in a manner consistent with all applicable state, local, and federal statutes. 3. Once separation and disposal have been achieved, the party of the first part shall have the option of beginning the installation of the party of the fourth part, also known as ‘new light bulb’. This installation shall occur in a manner consistent with the reverse procedures described in step one of this self same document, being careful to note that the rotation should occur in a clockwise direction, said direction also being non-negotiable and only until the party of the fourth part becomes snug in the party of the third part and in fact becomes the party of the second part. Note: The above described steps may be performed, at the option of the party of the first part, by said party of the first part, or by his or her heirs and assigns, or by any and all persons authorised by him or her to do sum the objective being to produce a level of illumination in the immediate vicinity of the aforementioned front (North) door consistent with maximisation of ingress and revenue for the party of the fifth part, also known as ‘The Firm’.
  • Lawyers And Light BulbsQ: How many lawyers does it take to change a light bulb? This is a question that’s been at the forefront of discussion amongst the most prestigious scholars and lawmakers of the world. Finally, after getting them all together – the question has been answered. A: Such number as may be deemed necessary to perform the stated task in a timely and efficient manner within the strictures of the following agreement. Whereas the party of the first part, also known as ‘the lawyers’ and the party of the second part, also known as ‘the light bulb’ do hereby agree to a transaction wherein the party of the second part shall be removed from the current position as a result of failure to perform previously agreed upon duties, i.e. the lighting, elucidation, and otherwise illumination of the area ranging from the front (North) door, through the entryway, terminating at an area just through the primary living area, demarcated by the beginning of the carpet, any spillover illumination being at the option of the party of the second part and not required by the aforementioned agreement between the parties. The aforementioned removal transaction shall include, but not be limited to, the following steps: 1. The party of the first part shall, with or without elevation at his option, by means of a chair, step stool, ladder or any other means of elevation, grasp the party of the second part and rotate the party of the second part in a counter clockwise direction, said direction being non-negotiable. Said grasping and rotation of the party of the second part shall be undertaken by the party of the first part to maintain the structural integrity of the party of the second part, notwithstanding the aforementioned failure of the party of the second part to perform the customary and agreed upon duties. The foregoing notwithstanding, however, both parties stipulate that structural failure of the party of the second part may be incidental to the aforementioned failure to perform and in such case the party of the first part shall be held blameless for such structural failure insofar as the non-negotiable directional codicil is observed by the party of the first part throughout. 2. Upon reaching a point where the party of the second part becomes seperated from the party of the third part, also known as the ‘receptacle’, the party of the first part shall have the option of disposing of the party of the second part in a manner consistent with all applicable state, local, and federal statutes. 3. Once separation and disposal have been achieved, the party of the first part shall have the option of beginning the installation of the party of the fourth part, also known as ‘new light bulb’. This installation shall occur in a manner consistent with the reverse procedures described in step one of this self same document, being careful to note that the rotation should occur in a clockwise direction, said direction also being non-negotiable and only until the party of the fourth part becomes snug in the party of the third part and in fact becomes the party of the second part. Note: The above described steps may be performed, at the option of the party of the first part, by said party of the first part, or by his or her heirs and assigns, or by any and all persons authorised by him or her to do sum the objective being to produce a level of illumination in the immediate vicinity of the aforementioned front (North) door consistent with maximisation of ingress and revenue for the party of the fifth part, also known as ‘The Firm’.
    Oct 22, 2019 27
  • 29 Sep 2019
    Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of gender and society, mostly, but not exclusively within the field of critical theory. It is used to describe, and, frequently, to criticize how many social institutions and social policies are seen to reinforce certain beliefs. These include the belief that human beings fall into two distinct and complementary categories, male and female; that sexual and marital relations are normal only when between two people of different genders; and that each gender has certain natural roles in life. Thus, physical sex, gender identity, and gender roles, should in any given person all align to either male or female norms, and heterosexuality is considered to be the only normal sexual orientation. The norms this term describes or criticizes might be overt, covert, or implied. Those who identify and criticize heteronormativity say that it distorts discourse by stigmatizing alternative concepts of both sexuality and gender, and makes certain types of self-expression more difficult.This concept was formulated for use in the exploration and critique of the traditional norms of sex, gender identity, gender roles and sexuality, and of the social implications of those institutions. It is descriptive of a dichotomous system of categorization that directly links social behavior and self identity with one's genitalia. That is (among other) to say that, because there are strictly defined concepts of maleness and femaleness, there are similarly expected behaviors for both males and females.Originally conceived to describe the norms against which non-heterosexuals struggle, it quickly became incorporated into both the gender and the transgender debate. It is also often used in postmodernist and feminist debates. Those who use this concept frequently point to the difficulty posed to those who hold a dichotomous view of sexuality by the presence of clear exceptions -- from freemartins in the bovine world to intersexual human beings with the sexual characteristics of both sexes. These exceptions are taken as direct evidence that neither sex nor gender are concepts that can be reduced to an either/or proposition.In a heteronormative society, the binary choice of male and female for one's gender identity is viewed as leading to a lack of possible choice about one's gender role and sexual identity. Also, as part of the norms established by society for both genders, is the requirement that the individuals should feel and/or express desire only for partners of the opposite sex. In other critiques, such as the work of Eve Sedgwick (an American theorist in the fields of gender studies, and queer theory), this heteronormative pairing is viewed as defining sexual orientation exclusively in terms of the sex/gender of the person one chooses to have sex with, ignoring other preferences one might have about sex.In a heteronormative society, men and women are interpreted to be natural complements, socially as well as biologically, and especially when it comes to reproduction. Woman and men are necessary for procreation, therefore male/female coupling is assumed to be the norm.The concept of heteronormativity seeks to make visible the underlying norms or "normal" society. It questions the common and often tightly held notion that only what is statistically typical is normal and good. It embraces the notion (in the philosophy of ethics) that "is does not imply ought."Heteronormativity and patriarchyHeteronormativity is often strongly associated with, and sometimes even confused with patriarchy. However, a patriarchal system does not necessarily have a binary gender system, and vice versa — it merely privileges the masculine gender over all others — regardless of the number of others. Still, heteronormativity is often seen as one of the pillars of a patriarchal society: the traditional role of men is reinforced and perpetuated through heteronormative mores, rules, and even laws that distinguish between individuals based upon their apparent sex, or based on their refusal to conform to the gender roles that are normal to their society. Consequently, feminism can be seen as concerned with fighting "heteronormativity" and the prescriptions it is seen to have for women.Groups that challenge traditional gender structureCritics of heteronormativity say that the existence of intersex, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people undermines any fundamental assumption that gender is naturally dichotomous. They believe it problematizes justifications such as the appeal to natural law, or certain Christian notions of faith in God's plan or belief in the goodness of Creation.Many supporters of heteronormativity are aware that these groups exist, and reconcile that with their beliefs by making the "is" vs. "ought" distinction. On the other hand, if what is typical is somehow related to what is good, then the fact that these groups are all numerical minorities may be significant. The issue of choice vs. biological pre-determination is also an important consideration, and supporters and critics often disagree about those facts.Supporters of heteronormativity may thus consider members of LGBTI people abnormal, diseased, or immoral. The range of possible social responses has and does include tolerance, pity, shunning, violence, and attempts to help members of these groups become more "normal" through compassionate or even forceful meansIntersexualsIntersexual people have biological characteristics which are not unambigously either male or female. If such a condition is detected, intersexual people are almost always assigned a gender at birth. Surgery (usually involving modification to the genitalia) is often performed to produce an unambiguously male or female body, without the individual's consent. The child is then usually raised and enculturated as a member of the assigned gender, which may or may not match gender identity throughout life or some remaining sex characteristics (for example, genes). Some individuals who have been subjected to these interventions have objected that had they been consulted at an age when they were able to give informed consent then they would have declined these surgical and social interventions.Gender theorists argue that gender assignment to intersex individuals is a clear case of heteronormativity, in which a biological reality is actually denied in order to maintain a binary set of sexes and genders.Transgendered people* often seek gender reassignment therapy, thereby violating the assumption that only unambiguous female or male bodies exist.* do not develop a gender identity that corresponds to their body; in fact, several never develop a gender identity that is plainly male or female.* often do not behave according to the gender role assigned to them, even before transitioning. This is especially true for trans men, but also many trans women.* often identify as gay or lesbian after transitioning, and are often lumped together with homosexuals relative to their birth sex, although that is almost never correct. While some trans men did identify as lesbians for a time (although this is still a minority), trans women who identify as gay men are very rare.Some societies consider transgendered behavior a crime worthy of capital punishment, including Saudi Arabia, and many other non-western nations. In other countries, certain forms of violence against transgendered people may be tacitly endorsed when prosecutors and juries refuse to investigate, prosecute, or convict those who perform the murders and beatings. Currently, in parts of North America and Europe.  Other societies have considered transgendered behavior as an psychiatric illness serious enough to justify institutionalization.Certain restrictions on the ability of transgendered people to obtain gender-related medical treatment has been blamed on heteronormativity. In medical communities with these restrictions, patients have the option of either suppressing transsexual behavior and conforming to the norms of their birth sex (which may be necessary to avoid social stigma or even violence), or adhering strictly to norms for their "new" sex in order to qualify for gender reassignment surgery and hormonal treatments (if any treatment is offered at all). These norms might include: dress and mannerisms, choice of occupation, choice of hobbies, and the gender of one's mate (heterosexuality required). (For example, trans women might be expected to trade a "masculine" job for a more "feminine" one - e.g. become a secretary instead of a lawyer.) Attempts to achieve and ambiguous or "alternative" gender identity would not be supported or allowed. Some medical communities, especially since the 1990s, have adopted more accommodating practices, but many have not.Many governments and official agencies have also been criticized as having heteronormative systems that classify people into "male" and "female" genders in problematic ways. Different jurisdictions use different definitions of gender, including by genitalia, DNA, hormone levels (including some official sports bodies), or birth sex (which means one's gender cannot ever be officially changed). Sometimes gender reassignment surgery is a requirement for an official gender change, and often "male" and "female" are the only choices available, even for intersexed or transgendered people. Because most governments only allow heterosexual marriages, official gender changes can have implications for related rights and privileges, such as child custody, inheritance, and medical decision-making.   FurtherMost people have a clearly defined sex:For most, but not all people, their sex may be defined in terms of any one of the following three factors:Their genetic or biological sex: Every cell in a person's body contains sex chromosomes that determine a person's genetic sex. In almost all cases, these are XX chromosomes for females, and XY for males.Their gender identity: This involves their "internal sense of being either male or female."Their physiological gender: The genitalia of the vast majority of newborns are clearly either male or female, and remain so throughout life. Their appearance determines the sex that they are assigned at birth.The vast majority of people are cisgendered: they will mature with their biological sex, gender identity and physiological gender in harmony. For example, for a typical woman:Each cell in a her body will contain 46 chromosomes including a pair of XX sex chromosomes -- commonly written 46,XX.She will identify as a female. By the age of one, she might show a preference for more feminine-typical toys. By age three she will probably have a definite sense of being a boy or girl. By age five, she will "... come to believe that sex is unchanging with time. This is the point at which many people think that a child's gender identity becomes fully established and fixed. Then all the child's energy seems to focus on adopting behaviors consistent with that sex."Her genitals and internal reproductive organs will be female.Some people do not have a clearly defined sex:Not every person fits neatly into the binary female/male system. There are many exceptions.Consider what genetic or biological sex can involve:Rarely, a newborn will have 45 chromosomes including only one X sex chromosome referred to as 45,X. Other forms of DNA are 47/XXX, 48/XXXX, 49/XXXXX, 47/XYY, 47/XXY, 48/XXXY, 49.XXXXY, or 49/XXXYY.Some newborns have different numbers of chromosomes in different cells within their bodies. This can be caused by complications in early cell division at the pre-embryo stage. When multiple sex chromosomes appear in the same body, they are called sex-chromosome mosaics. They may have combinations of normal male and female chromosomes, typically 46,XY; 45,X; or 46,XX, within their body.Sometimes, an ova with two nuclei will be formed in an ovary, be fertilized by two sperm, and grow into a chimera -- a person with two DNAs. One possibility is that they might have some 46,XX and some 46,XY (a normal female and normal male) chromosome configuration.Sometimes two separate zygotes (fertilized ova) can fuse shortly after conception and develop into a single embryo with two different DNAs. Consider gender identity:A minority of individuals develop a sense of being of the opposite sex from their biological and physiological gender." 1 They may describe themselves as a man trapped in a woman's body, or having a man's body with a woman's brain. They experience Gender Identity Disorder, a.k.a. Gender Dysphoria.1  Some people identify as both male and female.2  Others identify as being of a third gender, as being "two spirited" or of having no gender at all.3  Some will be intersexual. They will have an "anatomy or physiology which differ from cultural ideals of male and female." Some will have genitalia which are ambiguous, others with both male and female components, and still others will be missing external genitalia entirely.Our cultures' tendency to divide people neatly into male and female suddenly looks inadequate and over simplistic.Beliefs about sex, gender identity and gender dysphoria by transgendered persons, transsexuals, social and religious liberals, secularists, etc:They are much more likely to accept the findings of genetics and human sexuality research and acknowledge that the binary male/female system is inadequate. They view transgendered persons who are identified as male when they are born but make the transition to female later in life -- often referred to as MTF transsexuals -- as female. Similarly they consider female to male transsexuals (FTM) who have made the transition to be male."The transsexual appears to be a perfectly normal male or female with normal primary and secondary sexual characteristics. ... transsexualism cannot be detected visually or by any other means. Since other people can't see anything amiss, they conclude that transsexualism is not a physical defect, but more an emotional/psychological problem. It is a common but erroneous belief that with a little self-discipline, or with counseling, a transsexual person can act normally and accept their lot in life. ..."After decades of trying, psychiatrists have had to admit defeat in conquering this dilemma. In all the years that psychiatry has tried to 'cure' transsexualism, not one case has responded positively and permanently." for further posts and replies https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/7805/heteronormativity?page=1
  • Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of gender and society, mostly, but not exclusively within the field of critical theory. It is used to describe, and, frequently, to criticize how many social institutions and social policies are seen to reinforce certain beliefs. These include the belief that human beings fall into two distinct and complementary categories, male and female; that sexual and marital relations are normal only when between two people of different genders; and that each gender has certain natural roles in life. Thus, physical sex, gender identity, and gender roles, should in any given person all align to either male or female norms, and heterosexuality is considered to be the only normal sexual orientation. The norms this term describes or criticizes might be overt, covert, or implied. Those who identify and criticize heteronormativity say that it distorts discourse by stigmatizing alternative concepts of both sexuality and gender, and makes certain types of self-expression more difficult.This concept was formulated for use in the exploration and critique of the traditional norms of sex, gender identity, gender roles and sexuality, and of the social implications of those institutions. It is descriptive of a dichotomous system of categorization that directly links social behavior and self identity with one's genitalia. That is (among other) to say that, because there are strictly defined concepts of maleness and femaleness, there are similarly expected behaviors for both males and females.Originally conceived to describe the norms against which non-heterosexuals struggle, it quickly became incorporated into both the gender and the transgender debate. It is also often used in postmodernist and feminist debates. Those who use this concept frequently point to the difficulty posed to those who hold a dichotomous view of sexuality by the presence of clear exceptions -- from freemartins in the bovine world to intersexual human beings with the sexual characteristics of both sexes. These exceptions are taken as direct evidence that neither sex nor gender are concepts that can be reduced to an either/or proposition.In a heteronormative society, the binary choice of male and female for one's gender identity is viewed as leading to a lack of possible choice about one's gender role and sexual identity. Also, as part of the norms established by society for both genders, is the requirement that the individuals should feel and/or express desire only for partners of the opposite sex. In other critiques, such as the work of Eve Sedgwick (an American theorist in the fields of gender studies, and queer theory), this heteronormative pairing is viewed as defining sexual orientation exclusively in terms of the sex/gender of the person one chooses to have sex with, ignoring other preferences one might have about sex.In a heteronormative society, men and women are interpreted to be natural complements, socially as well as biologically, and especially when it comes to reproduction. Woman and men are necessary for procreation, therefore male/female coupling is assumed to be the norm.The concept of heteronormativity seeks to make visible the underlying norms or "normal" society. It questions the common and often tightly held notion that only what is statistically typical is normal and good. It embraces the notion (in the philosophy of ethics) that "is does not imply ought."Heteronormativity and patriarchyHeteronormativity is often strongly associated with, and sometimes even confused with patriarchy. However, a patriarchal system does not necessarily have a binary gender system, and vice versa — it merely privileges the masculine gender over all others — regardless of the number of others. Still, heteronormativity is often seen as one of the pillars of a patriarchal society: the traditional role of men is reinforced and perpetuated through heteronormative mores, rules, and even laws that distinguish between individuals based upon their apparent sex, or based on their refusal to conform to the gender roles that are normal to their society. Consequently, feminism can be seen as concerned with fighting "heteronormativity" and the prescriptions it is seen to have for women.Groups that challenge traditional gender structureCritics of heteronormativity say that the existence of intersex, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people undermines any fundamental assumption that gender is naturally dichotomous. They believe it problematizes justifications such as the appeal to natural law, or certain Christian notions of faith in God's plan or belief in the goodness of Creation.Many supporters of heteronormativity are aware that these groups exist, and reconcile that with their beliefs by making the "is" vs. "ought" distinction. On the other hand, if what is typical is somehow related to what is good, then the fact that these groups are all numerical minorities may be significant. The issue of choice vs. biological pre-determination is also an important consideration, and supporters and critics often disagree about those facts.Supporters of heteronormativity may thus consider members of LGBTI people abnormal, diseased, or immoral. The range of possible social responses has and does include tolerance, pity, shunning, violence, and attempts to help members of these groups become more "normal" through compassionate or even forceful meansIntersexualsIntersexual people have biological characteristics which are not unambigously either male or female. If such a condition is detected, intersexual people are almost always assigned a gender at birth. Surgery (usually involving modification to the genitalia) is often performed to produce an unambiguously male or female body, without the individual's consent. The child is then usually raised and enculturated as a member of the assigned gender, which may or may not match gender identity throughout life or some remaining sex characteristics (for example, genes). Some individuals who have been subjected to these interventions have objected that had they been consulted at an age when they were able to give informed consent then they would have declined these surgical and social interventions.Gender theorists argue that gender assignment to intersex individuals is a clear case of heteronormativity, in which a biological reality is actually denied in order to maintain a binary set of sexes and genders.Transgendered people* often seek gender reassignment therapy, thereby violating the assumption that only unambiguous female or male bodies exist.* do not develop a gender identity that corresponds to their body; in fact, several never develop a gender identity that is plainly male or female.* often do not behave according to the gender role assigned to them, even before transitioning. This is especially true for trans men, but also many trans women.* often identify as gay or lesbian after transitioning, and are often lumped together with homosexuals relative to their birth sex, although that is almost never correct. While some trans men did identify as lesbians for a time (although this is still a minority), trans women who identify as gay men are very rare.Some societies consider transgendered behavior a crime worthy of capital punishment, including Saudi Arabia, and many other non-western nations. In other countries, certain forms of violence against transgendered people may be tacitly endorsed when prosecutors and juries refuse to investigate, prosecute, or convict those who perform the murders and beatings. Currently, in parts of North America and Europe.  Other societies have considered transgendered behavior as an psychiatric illness serious enough to justify institutionalization.Certain restrictions on the ability of transgendered people to obtain gender-related medical treatment has been blamed on heteronormativity. In medical communities with these restrictions, patients have the option of either suppressing transsexual behavior and conforming to the norms of their birth sex (which may be necessary to avoid social stigma or even violence), or adhering strictly to norms for their "new" sex in order to qualify for gender reassignment surgery and hormonal treatments (if any treatment is offered at all). These norms might include: dress and mannerisms, choice of occupation, choice of hobbies, and the gender of one's mate (heterosexuality required). (For example, trans women might be expected to trade a "masculine" job for a more "feminine" one - e.g. become a secretary instead of a lawyer.) Attempts to achieve and ambiguous or "alternative" gender identity would not be supported or allowed. Some medical communities, especially since the 1990s, have adopted more accommodating practices, but many have not.Many governments and official agencies have also been criticized as having heteronormative systems that classify people into "male" and "female" genders in problematic ways. Different jurisdictions use different definitions of gender, including by genitalia, DNA, hormone levels (including some official sports bodies), or birth sex (which means one's gender cannot ever be officially changed). Sometimes gender reassignment surgery is a requirement for an official gender change, and often "male" and "female" are the only choices available, even for intersexed or transgendered people. Because most governments only allow heterosexual marriages, official gender changes can have implications for related rights and privileges, such as child custody, inheritance, and medical decision-making.   FurtherMost people have a clearly defined sex:For most, but not all people, their sex may be defined in terms of any one of the following three factors:Their genetic or biological sex: Every cell in a person's body contains sex chromosomes that determine a person's genetic sex. In almost all cases, these are XX chromosomes for females, and XY for males.Their gender identity: This involves their "internal sense of being either male or female."Their physiological gender: The genitalia of the vast majority of newborns are clearly either male or female, and remain so throughout life. Their appearance determines the sex that they are assigned at birth.The vast majority of people are cisgendered: they will mature with their biological sex, gender identity and physiological gender in harmony. For example, for a typical woman:Each cell in a her body will contain 46 chromosomes including a pair of XX sex chromosomes -- commonly written 46,XX.She will identify as a female. By the age of one, she might show a preference for more feminine-typical toys. By age three she will probably have a definite sense of being a boy or girl. By age five, she will "... come to believe that sex is unchanging with time. This is the point at which many people think that a child's gender identity becomes fully established and fixed. Then all the child's energy seems to focus on adopting behaviors consistent with that sex."Her genitals and internal reproductive organs will be female.Some people do not have a clearly defined sex:Not every person fits neatly into the binary female/male system. There are many exceptions.Consider what genetic or biological sex can involve:Rarely, a newborn will have 45 chromosomes including only one X sex chromosome referred to as 45,X. Other forms of DNA are 47/XXX, 48/XXXX, 49/XXXXX, 47/XYY, 47/XXY, 48/XXXY, 49.XXXXY, or 49/XXXYY.Some newborns have different numbers of chromosomes in different cells within their bodies. This can be caused by complications in early cell division at the pre-embryo stage. When multiple sex chromosomes appear in the same body, they are called sex-chromosome mosaics. They may have combinations of normal male and female chromosomes, typically 46,XY; 45,X; or 46,XX, within their body.Sometimes, an ova with two nuclei will be formed in an ovary, be fertilized by two sperm, and grow into a chimera -- a person with two DNAs. One possibility is that they might have some 46,XX and some 46,XY (a normal female and normal male) chromosome configuration.Sometimes two separate zygotes (fertilized ova) can fuse shortly after conception and develop into a single embryo with two different DNAs. Consider gender identity:A minority of individuals develop a sense of being of the opposite sex from their biological and physiological gender." 1 They may describe themselves as a man trapped in a woman's body, or having a man's body with a woman's brain. They experience Gender Identity Disorder, a.k.a. Gender Dysphoria.1  Some people identify as both male and female.2  Others identify as being of a third gender, as being "two spirited" or of having no gender at all.3  Some will be intersexual. They will have an "anatomy or physiology which differ from cultural ideals of male and female." Some will have genitalia which are ambiguous, others with both male and female components, and still others will be missing external genitalia entirely.Our cultures' tendency to divide people neatly into male and female suddenly looks inadequate and over simplistic.Beliefs about sex, gender identity and gender dysphoria by transgendered persons, transsexuals, social and religious liberals, secularists, etc:They are much more likely to accept the findings of genetics and human sexuality research and acknowledge that the binary male/female system is inadequate. They view transgendered persons who are identified as male when they are born but make the transition to female later in life -- often referred to as MTF transsexuals -- as female. Similarly they consider female to male transsexuals (FTM) who have made the transition to be male."The transsexual appears to be a perfectly normal male or female with normal primary and secondary sexual characteristics. ... transsexualism cannot be detected visually or by any other means. Since other people can't see anything amiss, they conclude that transsexualism is not a physical defect, but more an emotional/psychological problem. It is a common but erroneous belief that with a little self-discipline, or with counseling, a transsexual person can act normally and accept their lot in life. ..."After decades of trying, psychiatrists have had to admit defeat in conquering this dilemma. In all the years that psychiatry has tried to 'cure' transsexualism, not one case has responded positively and permanently." for further posts and replies https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/7805/heteronormativity?page=1
    Sep 29, 2019 46
  • 28 Sep 2019
    When all available hypotheses have been evaluated, the scientific method chooses the one that best meets the above criteria. A simpler explanation will be preferred over one that is complex or requires a leap of faith to accept.   Califia (1997) reports that three different schools of thought can be identified within the debate on Gender Dysphoria. These are not all that have been proposed overthe years but these form the majority of the currently credible arguments.   First, the psychoanalytic approach based on innate bisexuality in humans has beenproposed. This suggests that male-to-female transsexualism might result from a failureof a boy to separate himself from his mother in early boyhood. Instead of identifying with the father, the boy identifies with the mother. Such traditional analyses consider lack of a cohesive self, opposite gender envy and jealousy combined with positive reinforcement such as a parent encouraging opposite gender behavior as the driving force behind the feeling of discomfort or confusion with the persons’ gender identification. A relatively high incidence of these factors has been observed in studies during supervised therapy for both male-to-female and female-to-male transsexuals (Califia, 1997).   The psychoanalytic theories, with many variants, present a hypothesis for a cause for Gender Dysphoria, but none of these theories has been investigated to see if the existence of these initial conditions correlate with resulting Gender Dysphoria. Studies of intra-family relationships, divorce rates, parental dominance, marital harmony, and many other factors have not revealed a common pattern that could account for Gender Dysphoria. In fact, the evidence is that stable and harmonious intra-family relations do not exclude a transsexual outcome of one or more children. This approach certainly does not explain the significant numbers of people who display gender variant behavior and have not come from these kinds of family background.The second school of thought is behaviorism, also known as Social Learning Theory.    Gender identity development is viewed as the result of a learning process that is imposed on the developing gender identity of a child. Gender identity develops as the result of “imprinting” and “conditioning” processes (Califia, 1997).   In gender dysphoric people the conditioning is different to that which would normally be expected. A typical example of this process would be a parental figure encouraging “tomboy” behavior for a child born as a female or encouraging a male child to dress up and behave like a girl.   This theory has been elaborated by introducing biological factors (by chemicals, hormones or by brain differences) and by introducing the concept of a “critical period” toaccount for the fact that many people have experienced periods where they were encouraged to behave outside “usual” gender roles and have not experienced Gender Dysphoria    In the critical periods, biological, psychodynamic, and environmental factors (in particular, the parents’ expectations and the way they rear theirchild) have an effect on the development of their gender identity. Prior and subsequent to this critical period, such an effect does not occur.   A prominent researcher, John Money, has drawn an analogy with the critical period of genital differentiation known to operate in the fetal period. Based on the resultof his extensive research, he has hypothesized that the process of gender identity formation can be compared with the process of acquiring a language. This school of thought is quite complex in the way it describes many special cases and variations in cause. It therefore becomes very difficult to test or to make predictions from a set of initial conditions. It does have the advantage of being quite descriptive.   The whole process may, in fact, be quite complex and require complexity to adequately explain it.   The introduction of biological influences, known as the Biological Theory, at or prior to birth seem to be quite explanatory of many things observed in gender dysphoria, but they are difficult to test. For instance, the brain differences can only be discovered after a person dies by dissection. Prospective studies are hard to achieve in those circumstances. Monitoring of hormonal variations prior to birth is too intrusive to hopeto perform a useful analytical test of this idea The third school of thought assumes that the development of gender identity is related to the maturation of cognitive development (Cognitive-Developmental Theory).   At about eleven years of age, a child’s gender identity starts to become consolidated or fixed as formal thought and abstract reasoning become possible. An abstract concept of gender identity develops rather than the concrete concept of boy or girl and this concept can be related to the rest of the world as a whole. This idea is in line with the work done by Piaget and others on childhood developmental processes. This school addresses some additional observations but has difficulty addressing all of the observations. All authors on gender identity development agree that a sense of gender identity termed core gender identity can be found in every child before 3 years of age. Core gender identity can be described as the child’s recognition that he is a boy or she is a girl.   Research shows that this concept proves to be highly resistant to change in later life. On the basis of clinical evidence, it seems that there is a solid argument that the foundation of gender dysphoria is laid before the age of three. Further research of this period is needed in order to understand more about the origin of gender dysphoria. Gender may well be the most basic element that makes up human personality. In fact, gender is so basic to our identity that most people mistakenly assumeour sense of being male or female is defined with absolute certainty by our anatomical sex. Contrary to popular belief, one’s sense of gender and one’s anatomical sex are two distinct elements each developing at different times in different parts of the body.   More theories surround what causes Gender Identity Disorder and where it originates. These theories are sub-categories in two very popular sociological theory bases, Social Constructionism and Essentialism (Stein, 1999). What started out as a criticism of socially constructed roles developed into a theory of gender, which denied Essentialism Gender Identity Disorder 50 in every form, stating instead that society took the biological differences of procreation, and instilled in them an artificial behavioral difference. The theory denies that there is any natural basis for gender identity. Thus, it denies to transgender people any rational cause, while at the same time presenting no reason why not. To some authors this meant that transgender people were free to express themselves in any manner they chose since all gender expression is a valid as any other. Only societal convention stands in the way of such freedom. Such conventions can be modified by the society as is deemed desirable. To some, all such restrictions are to be avoided in a live and let live ethos. Other authors, Janice Ramond and Germain Greer, being notable examples, saw male-to-female transgender people as exploitive of women, supporting the artificial sexist forms that oppress women. It is interesting that in this regard they exhibit a hidden Essentialism, one that focuses on the genitalia as defining classes of human beings. They decried the restrictions on one class, while despising those of the other class when they break those very restrictions Still the existence of transgender people poses a challenge to the social constructionist theory. One must explain both why gender identity exists, how it is perpetuated, enforced, and why some rare individuals chose to express a gender identity at odds with socially prescribed gender expression norms. While the data used originally in writing this is now well outdated, with more use of Brain Scans DNA testing and  an established clinical consensus facts proven which cannot be denied, enforced deterrent treatments and religious denials of the condition are therefor null and void.To understand more fully one must read the complete thread  https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/7790/synopsis-of-the-etiology-of-gender
  • When all available hypotheses have been evaluated, the scientific method chooses the one that best meets the above criteria. A simpler explanation will be preferred over one that is complex or requires a leap of faith to accept.   Califia (1997) reports that three different schools of thought can be identified within the debate on Gender Dysphoria. These are not all that have been proposed overthe years but these form the majority of the currently credible arguments.   First, the psychoanalytic approach based on innate bisexuality in humans has beenproposed. This suggests that male-to-female transsexualism might result from a failureof a boy to separate himself from his mother in early boyhood. Instead of identifying with the father, the boy identifies with the mother. Such traditional analyses consider lack of a cohesive self, opposite gender envy and jealousy combined with positive reinforcement such as a parent encouraging opposite gender behavior as the driving force behind the feeling of discomfort or confusion with the persons’ gender identification. A relatively high incidence of these factors has been observed in studies during supervised therapy for both male-to-female and female-to-male transsexuals (Califia, 1997).   The psychoanalytic theories, with many variants, present a hypothesis for a cause for Gender Dysphoria, but none of these theories has been investigated to see if the existence of these initial conditions correlate with resulting Gender Dysphoria. Studies of intra-family relationships, divorce rates, parental dominance, marital harmony, and many other factors have not revealed a common pattern that could account for Gender Dysphoria. In fact, the evidence is that stable and harmonious intra-family relations do not exclude a transsexual outcome of one or more children. This approach certainly does not explain the significant numbers of people who display gender variant behavior and have not come from these kinds of family background.The second school of thought is behaviorism, also known as Social Learning Theory.    Gender identity development is viewed as the result of a learning process that is imposed on the developing gender identity of a child. Gender identity develops as the result of “imprinting” and “conditioning” processes (Califia, 1997).   In gender dysphoric people the conditioning is different to that which would normally be expected. A typical example of this process would be a parental figure encouraging “tomboy” behavior for a child born as a female or encouraging a male child to dress up and behave like a girl.   This theory has been elaborated by introducing biological factors (by chemicals, hormones or by brain differences) and by introducing the concept of a “critical period” toaccount for the fact that many people have experienced periods where they were encouraged to behave outside “usual” gender roles and have not experienced Gender Dysphoria    In the critical periods, biological, psychodynamic, and environmental factors (in particular, the parents’ expectations and the way they rear theirchild) have an effect on the development of their gender identity. Prior and subsequent to this critical period, such an effect does not occur.   A prominent researcher, John Money, has drawn an analogy with the critical period of genital differentiation known to operate in the fetal period. Based on the resultof his extensive research, he has hypothesized that the process of gender identity formation can be compared with the process of acquiring a language. This school of thought is quite complex in the way it describes many special cases and variations in cause. It therefore becomes very difficult to test or to make predictions from a set of initial conditions. It does have the advantage of being quite descriptive.   The whole process may, in fact, be quite complex and require complexity to adequately explain it.   The introduction of biological influences, known as the Biological Theory, at or prior to birth seem to be quite explanatory of many things observed in gender dysphoria, but they are difficult to test. For instance, the brain differences can only be discovered after a person dies by dissection. Prospective studies are hard to achieve in those circumstances. Monitoring of hormonal variations prior to birth is too intrusive to hopeto perform a useful analytical test of this idea The third school of thought assumes that the development of gender identity is related to the maturation of cognitive development (Cognitive-Developmental Theory).   At about eleven years of age, a child’s gender identity starts to become consolidated or fixed as formal thought and abstract reasoning become possible. An abstract concept of gender identity develops rather than the concrete concept of boy or girl and this concept can be related to the rest of the world as a whole. This idea is in line with the work done by Piaget and others on childhood developmental processes. This school addresses some additional observations but has difficulty addressing all of the observations. All authors on gender identity development agree that a sense of gender identity termed core gender identity can be found in every child before 3 years of age. Core gender identity can be described as the child’s recognition that he is a boy or she is a girl.   Research shows that this concept proves to be highly resistant to change in later life. On the basis of clinical evidence, it seems that there is a solid argument that the foundation of gender dysphoria is laid before the age of three. Further research of this period is needed in order to understand more about the origin of gender dysphoria. Gender may well be the most basic element that makes up human personality. In fact, gender is so basic to our identity that most people mistakenly assumeour sense of being male or female is defined with absolute certainty by our anatomical sex. Contrary to popular belief, one’s sense of gender and one’s anatomical sex are two distinct elements each developing at different times in different parts of the body.   More theories surround what causes Gender Identity Disorder and where it originates. These theories are sub-categories in two very popular sociological theory bases, Social Constructionism and Essentialism (Stein, 1999). What started out as a criticism of socially constructed roles developed into a theory of gender, which denied Essentialism Gender Identity Disorder 50 in every form, stating instead that society took the biological differences of procreation, and instilled in them an artificial behavioral difference. The theory denies that there is any natural basis for gender identity. Thus, it denies to transgender people any rational cause, while at the same time presenting no reason why not. To some authors this meant that transgender people were free to express themselves in any manner they chose since all gender expression is a valid as any other. Only societal convention stands in the way of such freedom. Such conventions can be modified by the society as is deemed desirable. To some, all such restrictions are to be avoided in a live and let live ethos. Other authors, Janice Ramond and Germain Greer, being notable examples, saw male-to-female transgender people as exploitive of women, supporting the artificial sexist forms that oppress women. It is interesting that in this regard they exhibit a hidden Essentialism, one that focuses on the genitalia as defining classes of human beings. They decried the restrictions on one class, while despising those of the other class when they break those very restrictions Still the existence of transgender people poses a challenge to the social constructionist theory. One must explain both why gender identity exists, how it is perpetuated, enforced, and why some rare individuals chose to express a gender identity at odds with socially prescribed gender expression norms. While the data used originally in writing this is now well outdated, with more use of Brain Scans DNA testing and  an established clinical consensus facts proven which cannot be denied, enforced deterrent treatments and religious denials of the condition are therefor null and void.To understand more fully one must read the complete thread  https://gendersociety.com/forums/topic/7790/synopsis-of-the-etiology-of-gender
    Sep 28, 2019 55
  • 25 Aug 2019
    Saw the jumper on line and it reminded me of the numerous times I have resorted to being a sarcastic bitch.   If one were to search the web for my name, one link springs to mind. Cristine Shye Quotes | Quotes by Cristine ShyeCollection of Cristine Shye quotes, from the older more famous Cristine Shye quotes to all new quotes by Cristine Shye.SEARCHQUOTES.COM. My answers at the time, To the crude guy with halitosis,  ''The very thought! having sex with you has given me a soft on'' To the Gay guy that told me wearing dresses did not make me a woman.   ''If it did'nt I would be walking round with holes in my trouser pockets scratching my nuts and feeling a dickhead all day'' To the woman who called me a slag,  ''If cocks could fly, your mouth would be a busy airport'' To the guy who offered me 12 inches,   ''I don't have the time hanging around for you to fuck me three times'' To the woman that called me a gay guy in a frock.  ''Hun your birth certificate is actually an apology from the condom company for its defective product'' To the guy who threatened me with a fantastic night, and in the morning Asked how it was.   ''Disappointing to say the least and if I had of woken up first this morning with my arm trapped under you, I would have chewed it off to avoid a repeat performance'' To the man who said he was glad I was convincing and pretty otherwise he would have stood me up,  ''I so admire your honesty and your stupidity is your most outstanding feature, now fuck off''         
  • Saw the jumper on line and it reminded me of the numerous times I have resorted to being a sarcastic bitch.   If one were to search the web for my name, one link springs to mind. Cristine Shye Quotes | Quotes by Cristine ShyeCollection of Cristine Shye quotes, from the older more famous Cristine Shye quotes to all new quotes by Cristine Shye.SEARCHQUOTES.COM. My answers at the time, To the crude guy with halitosis,  ''The very thought! having sex with you has given me a soft on'' To the Gay guy that told me wearing dresses did not make me a woman.   ''If it did'nt I would be walking round with holes in my trouser pockets scratching my nuts and feeling a dickhead all day'' To the woman who called me a slag,  ''If cocks could fly, your mouth would be a busy airport'' To the guy who offered me 12 inches,   ''I don't have the time hanging around for you to fuck me three times'' To the woman that called me a gay guy in a frock.  ''Hun your birth certificate is actually an apology from the condom company for its defective product'' To the guy who threatened me with a fantastic night, and in the morning Asked how it was.   ''Disappointing to say the least and if I had of woken up first this morning with my arm trapped under you, I would have chewed it off to avoid a repeat performance'' To the man who said he was glad I was convincing and pretty otherwise he would have stood me up,  ''I so admire your honesty and your stupidity is your most outstanding feature, now fuck off''         
    Aug 25, 2019 72
  • 13 Jul 2019
    I have just witnessed a post on the home page depicting anal fisting and  subsequent comment's desiring the same treatment.   NOT A GOOD IDEA.  I have had quite a few sexual encounter's with a variety of sized cock's toys etc, one must realise the sphincter is formed to accommodate an outward expulsion of waste. it will allow a certain amount of flexibility for insertions there is a limit to it's ability to return to normal though, if stretched beyond a certain point it will not close, affecting the control of bowel movements, so basically you could go to bed, nice nightie pants, etc wake up in a real mess.   Luckily I never entertained fisting. In the early days of my sexual experiences I used copious amount's of Poppers (Amyl Nitrate) by sniffing this, it (1) erases inhibitions,  (2) increases sexual arousal, (3) dulls the initial pain of entry. On one occasion carried away, out of my head I took on a rather well endowed male, it was rough and hard the sensation was incredible, what I did not realise in the after glow, my lower bowel had been torn, Not only was I bleeding through my anus, waste was seeping into the cavity containing my bowels, I ended up in hospital a day later with peritonitis, lucky, I didf'nt end up with a waste bag strapped to my upper bowel, for the rest of my life.  Another downside in the over use of poppers it rots the lining of the nose, so one suffers regular nose bleeds.  One of the problems with anal sex, even with women is the sensations diminish with frequent encounters, so there is always the feeling of wanting bigger and bigger,more and more..       
    219 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • I have just witnessed a post on the home page depicting anal fisting and  subsequent comment's desiring the same treatment.   NOT A GOOD IDEA.  I have had quite a few sexual encounter's with a variety of sized cock's toys etc, one must realise the sphincter is formed to accommodate an outward expulsion of waste. it will allow a certain amount of flexibility for insertions there is a limit to it's ability to return to normal though, if stretched beyond a certain point it will not close, affecting the control of bowel movements, so basically you could go to bed, nice nightie pants, etc wake up in a real mess.   Luckily I never entertained fisting. In the early days of my sexual experiences I used copious amount's of Poppers (Amyl Nitrate) by sniffing this, it (1) erases inhibitions,  (2) increases sexual arousal, (3) dulls the initial pain of entry. On one occasion carried away, out of my head I took on a rather well endowed male, it was rough and hard the sensation was incredible, what I did not realise in the after glow, my lower bowel had been torn, Not only was I bleeding through my anus, waste was seeping into the cavity containing my bowels, I ended up in hospital a day later with peritonitis, lucky, I didf'nt end up with a waste bag strapped to my upper bowel, for the rest of my life.  Another downside in the over use of poppers it rots the lining of the nose, so one suffers regular nose bleeds.  One of the problems with anal sex, even with women is the sensations diminish with frequent encounters, so there is always the feeling of wanting bigger and bigger,more and more..       
    Jul 13, 2019 219
  • 03 Jul 2019
    Firstly a point in history, Preamble Legislation and Legal Judgements Impacting Trans People Sexual Offences Act 1967 This Act decriminalised homosexuality – though actually resulted in an increase in convictions for homosexuality. This was because it allowed sex between consenting adult men over the age of 21 only provided nobody else was in the same building – therefore two men taking a room in a hotel. living in shared accomodation, flat share or tower blocks were often reported, and subsequently raided and arrested. Since transsexual women were treated as male until after surgery – even if they were living and presenting as female -- many were arrested under this law, as homosexual men. Then Catastrophe, Corbett v Corbett 1970 In 1970, April Ashley’s divorce made matters worse. Until then, post-surgery trans women had been able to change their birth certificates unofficially, to reflect their acquired gender. However, in the court case annulling her marriage to Arthur Corbett (Corbett v Corbett ), Justice Ormrod determined that trans people could not ever change sex, and therefore even after full gender reassignment, trans people remained legally in their birth gender. This made them unable to marry, and inhumanely treated in all legal matters, including imprisonment. In 1999 the Human Rights commission passed discrimination and equalities laws regarding Gays, Lesbians and Transexual people. basically the UK ignored these rules until a case put before the ECHR (European Courts of Human rights. Goodwin v. UK and I v UK (2002) The European Court of Human Rights held that the UK government’s failure to alter the birth certificates of transsexual people or to allow them to marry in their new gender role was a breach of the European Convention on Human Rights. This led directly to new legislation to once again clarify and restrict the extent of the judgement. Things really did not change much from 1967 - 2002 When the UK was forced to start preparing a Gender Recognition Act. Prior to the GRA coming into force, one could not change their gender on the passport, because it was linked to their birth certificate, one had a doctors letter to explain the change of name and the contradictory gender marker.    Prior to the Corbet V Corbet (April Ashley) 1970 one could change their gender on their birth certificate, but during the a/m divorce the judge ruled . that because at the time of registration the gender marker on a birth certificate was a true fact, at the time of registration it could not be changed, the marriage was annulled, as being unlawful (The marriage was void ab initio) This also applied to passports regarding birth gender being a true fact at registration,  Which set back trans rights some 35 years.  In this forum there are case histories that brought about the advent of the GRA.   A Deed Poll is a legal document - not a certificate. It is a form of legal contract but it differs from legal contracts between two or more parties in that it only concerns one person (and it is only signed by that person in the presence of a witness). A Deed Poll legally binds the person who signs it to a particular course of action as detailed on the Deed Poll document. Although Deed Poll documents are used for various purposes relating to an individual or a company legally committing themselves to doing something, they have one generally accepted meaning, that is, a change of name. However, the correct legal name for a deed that has been drawn up to change someone's name is a Deed of Change of Name (but more commonly known as a Deed Poll). A Deed Poll for a change of name contains three declarations and by executing the Deed Poll (signing, dating and having your signing witnessed) you are legally committing yourself to: Abandoning the use of your former name; Using your new name only at all times; Requiring all persons to address you by your new name only and most important to use/address you by any revised gender marker. . The term "deed", also known in this context as a "specialty", is common to signed written agreements not supported by consideration: the seal (even if not a literal wax seal but only a notional one referred to by the execution formula, "signed, sealed and delivered", or even merely "executed as a deed") is deemed to be the consideration necessary to support the contract between the parties to the deed. "Poll" is an archaic legal term referring to documents with straight edges; these distinguished a deed binding only one person from one affecting more than a single person (an "indenture", so named during the time when such agreements would be written out repeatedly on a single sheet, then irregularly torn or "indented" so that each party had a document with corresponding tears, so as to discourage forgery). Unlike the law today, it used to be that a Christian name (i.e. the name given at baptism) could only be changed under ecclesiastical law by the bishop on that person's subsequent confirmation. However, the case of Re Parrott, Cox v Parrott [1946] Ch 183, [1946] 1 All ER 321 provides that a Christian name can be changed if the following words are inserted therein 'Notwithstanding the decision of Mr Justice Vaisey in the case of Re Parrott's Will Trust, Cox v Parrott, the applicant desires the enrolment to proceed." Legislation and Legal Judgements Impacting Trans People Sexual Offences Act 1967   This Act decriminalised homosexuality – though actually resulted in an increase in convictions for homosexuality. This was because it allowed sex between consenting adult men over the age of 21 only provided nobody else was in the same building – therefore two men taking a room in a hotel. living in shared accommodation, flat share or tower blocks were often reported, and subsequently raided and arrested. Since transsexual women were treated as male until after surgery – even if they were living and presenting as female -- many were arrested under this law, as homosexual men. 2004 The UK Gender Recognition act was presented to parliament, subsequently in the house of Lords where it was slashed/amended excusing discrimination on religious grounds,   (not in this Church) 3.5 Passports The Passports Act 2008, section 11, offers an important avenue for recognition of the acquired gender of a transsexual person.  For this purpose, a person who is transsexual may seek a passport in their new name and have their new sex entered therein.  This does not confer any right or entitlement not connected with the purposes of the Passports Act. For instance, it would not alter the legal gender of the person for the purpose of marriage law or entitle one to a reissued birth certificate noting the acquired gender. which is a consideration for The Gender Recognition Panel.   Obviously once a person has completed RLE and been issued with their GRC, entitlement is automatic. the issue of a new birth certificate with a new gender marker, allowing person to marry. enter into a legal marriage, (not to be confused with a same sex marriage or a civil partnership), since spring 2015 there is in force an amendment to the marriage act amendment 2013, mutual agreement for for continuance of an existing marriage (automatically registered as a same sex, legal marriage), so the relevant changes to names and gender on passports should be taken into consideration, Over the following years we have seen valuable amendments and right's added which also caused ratification of rights in the passport acts, marriage act, 2010 & 2013 and the right to remain married when applying for a Gender Recognition Certificate, by means of a mutual agreement form, avoiding the distress of having to obtain a divorce, automatically changing the marriage to a same sex marriage , amended certificate being issued alongside the new birth certificate.   https://gendersociety.com/forums/32/uk-transgender-law  
    160 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • Firstly a point in history, Preamble Legislation and Legal Judgements Impacting Trans People Sexual Offences Act 1967 This Act decriminalised homosexuality – though actually resulted in an increase in convictions for homosexuality. This was because it allowed sex between consenting adult men over the age of 21 only provided nobody else was in the same building – therefore two men taking a room in a hotel. living in shared accomodation, flat share or tower blocks were often reported, and subsequently raided and arrested. Since transsexual women were treated as male until after surgery – even if they were living and presenting as female -- many were arrested under this law, as homosexual men. Then Catastrophe, Corbett v Corbett 1970 In 1970, April Ashley’s divorce made matters worse. Until then, post-surgery trans women had been able to change their birth certificates unofficially, to reflect their acquired gender. However, in the court case annulling her marriage to Arthur Corbett (Corbett v Corbett ), Justice Ormrod determined that trans people could not ever change sex, and therefore even after full gender reassignment, trans people remained legally in their birth gender. This made them unable to marry, and inhumanely treated in all legal matters, including imprisonment. In 1999 the Human Rights commission passed discrimination and equalities laws regarding Gays, Lesbians and Transexual people. basically the UK ignored these rules until a case put before the ECHR (European Courts of Human rights. Goodwin v. UK and I v UK (2002) The European Court of Human Rights held that the UK government’s failure to alter the birth certificates of transsexual people or to allow them to marry in their new gender role was a breach of the European Convention on Human Rights. This led directly to new legislation to once again clarify and restrict the extent of the judgement. Things really did not change much from 1967 - 2002 When the UK was forced to start preparing a Gender Recognition Act. Prior to the GRA coming into force, one could not change their gender on the passport, because it was linked to their birth certificate, one had a doctors letter to explain the change of name and the contradictory gender marker.    Prior to the Corbet V Corbet (April Ashley) 1970 one could change their gender on their birth certificate, but during the a/m divorce the judge ruled . that because at the time of registration the gender marker on a birth certificate was a true fact, at the time of registration it could not be changed, the marriage was annulled, as being unlawful (The marriage was void ab initio) This also applied to passports regarding birth gender being a true fact at registration,  Which set back trans rights some 35 years.  In this forum there are case histories that brought about the advent of the GRA.   A Deed Poll is a legal document - not a certificate. It is a form of legal contract but it differs from legal contracts between two or more parties in that it only concerns one person (and it is only signed by that person in the presence of a witness). A Deed Poll legally binds the person who signs it to a particular course of action as detailed on the Deed Poll document. Although Deed Poll documents are used for various purposes relating to an individual or a company legally committing themselves to doing something, they have one generally accepted meaning, that is, a change of name. However, the correct legal name for a deed that has been drawn up to change someone's name is a Deed of Change of Name (but more commonly known as a Deed Poll). A Deed Poll for a change of name contains three declarations and by executing the Deed Poll (signing, dating and having your signing witnessed) you are legally committing yourself to: Abandoning the use of your former name; Using your new name only at all times; Requiring all persons to address you by your new name only and most important to use/address you by any revised gender marker. . The term "deed", also known in this context as a "specialty", is common to signed written agreements not supported by consideration: the seal (even if not a literal wax seal but only a notional one referred to by the execution formula, "signed, sealed and delivered", or even merely "executed as a deed") is deemed to be the consideration necessary to support the contract between the parties to the deed. "Poll" is an archaic legal term referring to documents with straight edges; these distinguished a deed binding only one person from one affecting more than a single person (an "indenture", so named during the time when such agreements would be written out repeatedly on a single sheet, then irregularly torn or "indented" so that each party had a document with corresponding tears, so as to discourage forgery). Unlike the law today, it used to be that a Christian name (i.e. the name given at baptism) could only be changed under ecclesiastical law by the bishop on that person's subsequent confirmation. However, the case of Re Parrott, Cox v Parrott [1946] Ch 183, [1946] 1 All ER 321 provides that a Christian name can be changed if the following words are inserted therein 'Notwithstanding the decision of Mr Justice Vaisey in the case of Re Parrott's Will Trust, Cox v Parrott, the applicant desires the enrolment to proceed." Legislation and Legal Judgements Impacting Trans People Sexual Offences Act 1967   This Act decriminalised homosexuality – though actually resulted in an increase in convictions for homosexuality. This was because it allowed sex between consenting adult men over the age of 21 only provided nobody else was in the same building – therefore two men taking a room in a hotel. living in shared accommodation, flat share or tower blocks were often reported, and subsequently raided and arrested. Since transsexual women were treated as male until after surgery – even if they were living and presenting as female -- many were arrested under this law, as homosexual men. 2004 The UK Gender Recognition act was presented to parliament, subsequently in the house of Lords where it was slashed/amended excusing discrimination on religious grounds,   (not in this Church) 3.5 Passports The Passports Act 2008, section 11, offers an important avenue for recognition of the acquired gender of a transsexual person.  For this purpose, a person who is transsexual may seek a passport in their new name and have their new sex entered therein.  This does not confer any right or entitlement not connected with the purposes of the Passports Act. For instance, it would not alter the legal gender of the person for the purpose of marriage law or entitle one to a reissued birth certificate noting the acquired gender. which is a consideration for The Gender Recognition Panel.   Obviously once a person has completed RLE and been issued with their GRC, entitlement is automatic. the issue of a new birth certificate with a new gender marker, allowing person to marry. enter into a legal marriage, (not to be confused with a same sex marriage or a civil partnership), since spring 2015 there is in force an amendment to the marriage act amendment 2013, mutual agreement for for continuance of an existing marriage (automatically registered as a same sex, legal marriage), so the relevant changes to names and gender on passports should be taken into consideration, Over the following years we have seen valuable amendments and right's added which also caused ratification of rights in the passport acts, marriage act, 2010 & 2013 and the right to remain married when applying for a Gender Recognition Certificate, by means of a mutual agreement form, avoiding the distress of having to obtain a divorce, automatically changing the marriage to a same sex marriage , amended certificate being issued alongside the new birth certificate.   https://gendersociety.com/forums/32/uk-transgender-law  
    Jul 03, 2019 160
  • 14 Apr 2019
    Gender identity, whether consistent or inconsistent with other sex characteristics, may be understood to be “much less a matter of choice and much more a matter of biology” (Coolidge et al., 2000). The scientific evidence supports the paradigm that transsexualism is strongly associated with the neurodevelopment of the brain (Zhou et al., 1995; Kruijver et al., 2000). It is clear that the condition cannot necessarily be overcome by “consistent psychological socialisation as male or female from very early childhood” and it is not responsive to psychological or psychiatric treatments alone (Green, 1999). It is understood that during the fetal period the brain is potentially subject to the organising properties of sex hormones (Kruijver et al., 2000; 2001; 2002; 2003). In the case of transsexualism, these effects appear to be atypical, resulting in sex-reversal in the structure of the BSTc, and possibly other, as yet unidentified, loci (Kruijver, 2004). The etiological pathways leading to this inconsistent development almost certainly vary from individual to individual, so no single route is likely to be identified. Different genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, acting separately or in combination with each other, are likely to be involved in influencing the development of the psychological identification as male or female. Psychosocial factors and cultural mores are likely to impact on outcomes (Connolly, 2003).     Cristine Shye The scientific literature has already come to a consensus on the existence of cognitive sex differences, especially with regard to spatial ability. Both neural/hormonal and social factors contribute to those differences. See Diane Halpern's "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities". Stereotypes, including gender stereotypes, are mostly accurate. So saying that some view or conclusion is a gender stereotype is not a real criticism. See Lee Jussim's "Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy". Finally, let's assume the real reason why women have bigger corpus callosums is that they have smaller brains. Does the relation between sex and corpus callosum size cease to exist? No. Women on average will still have larger corpus callosums and all the (presumed) behavioural/cognitive characteristics associated with it.  If you look at the sexual dimorphism from an evolutionary perspective, this makes perfect sense. In early human societies, men went out to hunt while women stayed in the village (with very few exceptions). The traits that made men more successful were those that allowed them to be better hunters and warriors: so coordinated action, perception of environmental opportunities and dangers. For the women in the village, their success is more dependent on "politics" and relationships. Instead of organising hunts, the successful woman is one who is well liked by people and use strong communication skills and wits to solve problems (and not brawn since they will lose to the stronger males). Thus over time, as the traits that marks a successful man and woman differs, it makes sense that there should be sexual metamorphism in brain structures.  Which in turn is a probable and logical cause for some brain structure difference in male to female transexuals. CONCLUSION The male and the female brains show anatomical, functional and biochemical differences in all stages of life. These differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual
    307 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • Gender identity, whether consistent or inconsistent with other sex characteristics, may be understood to be “much less a matter of choice and much more a matter of biology” (Coolidge et al., 2000). The scientific evidence supports the paradigm that transsexualism is strongly associated with the neurodevelopment of the brain (Zhou et al., 1995; Kruijver et al., 2000). It is clear that the condition cannot necessarily be overcome by “consistent psychological socialisation as male or female from very early childhood” and it is not responsive to psychological or psychiatric treatments alone (Green, 1999). It is understood that during the fetal period the brain is potentially subject to the organising properties of sex hormones (Kruijver et al., 2000; 2001; 2002; 2003). In the case of transsexualism, these effects appear to be atypical, resulting in sex-reversal in the structure of the BSTc, and possibly other, as yet unidentified, loci (Kruijver, 2004). The etiological pathways leading to this inconsistent development almost certainly vary from individual to individual, so no single route is likely to be identified. Different genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, acting separately or in combination with each other, are likely to be involved in influencing the development of the psychological identification as male or female. Psychosocial factors and cultural mores are likely to impact on outcomes (Connolly, 2003).     Cristine Shye The scientific literature has already come to a consensus on the existence of cognitive sex differences, especially with regard to spatial ability. Both neural/hormonal and social factors contribute to those differences. See Diane Halpern's "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities". Stereotypes, including gender stereotypes, are mostly accurate. So saying that some view or conclusion is a gender stereotype is not a real criticism. See Lee Jussim's "Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy". Finally, let's assume the real reason why women have bigger corpus callosums is that they have smaller brains. Does the relation between sex and corpus callosum size cease to exist? No. Women on average will still have larger corpus callosums and all the (presumed) behavioural/cognitive characteristics associated with it.  If you look at the sexual dimorphism from an evolutionary perspective, this makes perfect sense. In early human societies, men went out to hunt while women stayed in the village (with very few exceptions). The traits that made men more successful were those that allowed them to be better hunters and warriors: so coordinated action, perception of environmental opportunities and dangers. For the women in the village, their success is more dependent on "politics" and relationships. Instead of organising hunts, the successful woman is one who is well liked by people and use strong communication skills and wits to solve problems (and not brawn since they will lose to the stronger males). Thus over time, as the traits that marks a successful man and woman differs, it makes sense that there should be sexual metamorphism in brain structures.  Which in turn is a probable and logical cause for some brain structure difference in male to female transexuals. CONCLUSION The male and the female brains show anatomical, functional and biochemical differences in all stages of life. These differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual
    Apr 14, 2019 307
  • 25 Mar 2019
    Regardless of voting leave or remain, the very basis of our democracy is in question, remainers and leavers should honour the result and unite to shame this despicable parliament, what will they do to ignore the people the next time, put troops on the street and shoot us??????? for going against what these despicable shameless greedy politicians want? If a million leavers marched on London they would have been met with Armed troops, water cannons, rubber bullets and tear gas launchers.
    306 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • Regardless of voting leave or remain, the very basis of our democracy is in question, remainers and leavers should honour the result and unite to shame this despicable parliament, what will they do to ignore the people the next time, put troops on the street and shoot us??????? for going against what these despicable shameless greedy politicians want? If a million leavers marched on London they would have been met with Armed troops, water cannons, rubber bullets and tear gas launchers.
    Mar 25, 2019 306
  • 22 Mar 2019
    The EU has handed Theresa May two weeks’ grace to devise an alternative Brexit plan if her deal falls next week after the prime minister failed to convince the bloc that she was capable of avoiding a no-deal Brexit. After a marathon late-night session of talks, the EU’s leaders ripped up May’s proposals and a new Brexit timeline was pushed on the prime minister to avoid the cliff-edge deadline of 29 March – next Friday. Under the deal agreed by May, Britain will now stay a member state until 12 April if the withdrawal agreement is rejected by MPs at the third time of asking. The government will be able to seek a longer extension during that period if it can both “indicate a way forward” and agree to hold European elections. In the unlikely event that May does win the support of the Commons when the Brexit deal goes to MPs again on Tuesday, the UK will stay a member state until 22 May to allow necessary withdrawal legislation to be passed. “The 12 April is the new 29 March,” an EU official said.   When did the bill pass through Parliament revoking the Withdrawal Act which categorically states that we will leave the EU, irrespective of any deal, on 29th March? A bill passed into law. Does parliament now intend to break the law? To revoke article 50, firstly a green paper prepared and presented in the house of commons, after amendments and being passed  then a white paper debated amended before being presented to the house of lords, debated amended and ratified and passed into law.      As one EU official has said, "The UK Parliament is unable [or unwilling] to deliver the will of the people
    269 Posted by Cristine Shye. BL. B/acc
  • The EU has handed Theresa May two weeks’ grace to devise an alternative Brexit plan if her deal falls next week after the prime minister failed to convince the bloc that she was capable of avoiding a no-deal Brexit. After a marathon late-night session of talks, the EU’s leaders ripped up May’s proposals and a new Brexit timeline was pushed on the prime minister to avoid the cliff-edge deadline of 29 March – next Friday. Under the deal agreed by May, Britain will now stay a member state until 12 April if the withdrawal agreement is rejected by MPs at the third time of asking. The government will be able to seek a longer extension during that period if it can both “indicate a way forward” and agree to hold European elections. In the unlikely event that May does win the support of the Commons when the Brexit deal goes to MPs again on Tuesday, the UK will stay a member state until 22 May to allow necessary withdrawal legislation to be passed. “The 12 April is the new 29 March,” an EU official said.   When did the bill pass through Parliament revoking the Withdrawal Act which categorically states that we will leave the EU, irrespective of any deal, on 29th March? A bill passed into law. Does parliament now intend to break the law? To revoke article 50, firstly a green paper prepared and presented in the house of commons, after amendments and being passed  then a white paper debated amended before being presented to the house of lords, debated amended and ratified and passed into law.      As one EU official has said, "The UK Parliament is unable [or unwilling] to deliver the will of the people
    Mar 22, 2019 269